Canada Immigration: Explore Your PR Visa Options | CanadaVisa
Canada has set a target of welcoming 500,000 new immigrants by 2025.
Canada offers one of the world's most open and dynamic immigration systems. There are over 100 different Canadian immigration pathways for skilled workers, business people, and families. This comprehensive CanadaVisa page helps you explore which options may be best for you.
Table of Contents
- Why Does Canada Need Immigrants?
- Why Do Canadians Support Immigration?
- Skilled Worker Immigration Pathways
- Express Entry
- Provincial Nominee Program (PNP)
- Quebec Immigration
- Atlantic Immigration Program
- Other Federal Skilled Worker Programs
- Business Immigration
- Moving to Canada from the U.S.
- Family Class Sponsorship
- Find the Right Canadian Immigration Program
- Helpful Canada Immigration Resources
- Frequently Asked Questions
- Contact Cohen Immigration Law for Assistance
Do you want to immigrate to Canada? Then you have come to the right place. CanadaVisa will help you figure out how you can make your Canada dream come true.
People choose to immigrate to Canada for many reasons. Whether it’s to pursue a high-quality education, to feel secure with free universal healthcare, or to benefit from Canada’s high quality of life, Canada’s got it all.
There are over 100 different ways to immigrate to Canada. For that reason, everyone’s path to Canadian immigration will be unique.
For example, there are many different ways for professionals and workers to qualify for a Canada Immigration permanent resident visa. The most prominent option is through Express Entry, which is Canada's main pathway for economic class skilled workers. Your best bet to be eligible under Express Entry is to meet the requirements of either the Federal Skilled Worker Program (FSWP) or Canadian Experience Class (CEC). Canada's second largest pathway for skilled workers is the Provincial Nominee Program (PNP). Nearly every province and territory operates the PNP so they can select immigrants that meet the needs of their local job markets. The third major option is immigrating to the province of Quebec, which operates notable pathways such as the Quebec Skilled Worker Program and the Quebec Experience Class.
If you want to obtain Canadian permanent residence as a business immigrant, you have a number of options such as the Federal Self-Employed Program, the Start-up Visa, and entrepreneur programs operated under the PNP and by Quebec.
Canada offers a number of family class sponsorship programs. Through these programs, Canadian citizens and permanent residents may sponsor family members and loved ones for Canadian immigration.
LGBTQ2 individuals and couples are afforded the same rights and opportunities as other persons when it comes to immigration to Canada.
Canada welcomes immigrants under three classes: the economic class, family class, and refugee and humanitarian class.
Skilled workers are welcomed under the economic class to support Canada’s high living standards. Canada has an aging population and low birth rate which is why most of the immigrants it welcomes are skilled workers. Canada needs these skilled workers to support its labour force and economic growth. These skilled workers arrive with strong language skills, work experience, and education, and desire to succeed. Hence, they play a vital role in Canada’s efforts to support economic growth and social services such as education and universal health care.
The second largest immigrant class arrives through family sponsorship. Canada welcomes the loved ones of Canadian citizens and permanent residents since strong families are the bedrock of Canada’s society and economy. Allowing close family members to build a life in Canada provides families with the emotional support they need to thrive in the country’s society and economy.
The third largest class are welcomed as refugees and for humanitarian purposes. As one of the world’s most privileged nations, Canada has a moral obligation to provide safety to those fleeing persecution and other hardship, and Canada has a long tradition since the end of the Second World War of demonstrating humanitarian leadership. In 1986, the United Nations awarded the people of Canada the Nansen Medal, which is the UN's highest honour for those who demonstrate excellence in helping refugees. Canada remains the first and only country to receive the Nansen Medal.
One of the most unique things about Canada is it reports some of the strongest levels of public support for immigration in the world. Since the early 1990s, public support for immigration in Canada has steadily increased. Today, some 80 per cent of Canadians agree that immigration is beneficial to the economy. The strong public support allows the Canadian government to target the arrival of 500,000 new immigrants per year.
Public support for immigration in Canada is due to the following factors:
History: Canada has a history of immigration. British and French settlers joined Canada's Indigenous peoples to build the country. Since Canada's Confederation in 1867, it has welcomed millions of immigrants from all corners of the globe. Hence, other than Canada's Indigenous peoples, all Canadians are immigrants or the descendants of immigrants. As the saying goes at the Canadian Museum of Immigration in Halifax, Nova Scotia, "A Canadian is an immigrant with seniority."
Geography: Canada is able to exercise great control over who enters the country since it is surrounded by vast bodies of water and only shares its border with one country, the United States. The strong control allows Canada to screen people before they enter the country to make sure they meet Canada's policy goals.
Policy: Canada invests billions of dollars each year in welcoming immigrants and providing them with settlement supports such as job training. In addition, Canada invests billions on education, health care, infrastructure, and other important areas to keep living standards high for Canadians and immigrants.
Politics: Canada's largest cities and provinces have high levels of immigration. Politicians need support from immigrants in order to win democratic elections.
Under its Immigration Levels Plan, Canada aims to welcome well over 400,000 immigrants every year. Some 60 per cent of these immigrants arrive as skilled workers. The main way skilled workers can immigrate to Canada is through the Express Entry application management system. The second main way is through the Provincial Nominee Program (PNP), followed by Quebec’s skilled worker programs, and then a few other targeted federal programs.
Skilled Workers Can Move to Canada with their Family
Skilled workers can also bring close family members with them to Canada. These family members also gain permanent resident status.
Close family members include:
- your spouse or common-law partner
- dependent children
- dependent children of your spouse or common-law partner
- dependent children of dependent children
Dependent children are:
- under 22 years old and not a spouse or common law partner
- 22 years of age or older, depended significantly on financial support from their parents before the age of 22 and can not support themselves financially due to a physical or mental condition
Express Entry is Canada’s main way of managing skilled worker applications through the three main economic class immigration programs:
- Federal Skilled Worker Program (FSWP)
- Canadian Experience Class (CEC)
- Federal Skilled Trades Program (FSTP)
Candidates who are eligible for Express Entry can upload their profile onto the federal government’s website.
Candidates receive a Comprehensive Ranking System (CRS) score based on criteria such as their age, education, language skills, and work experience.
Approximately every two weeks, Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) invites candidates with the highest CRS scores to apply for permanent residence.
IRCC aims to process permanent residence applications in six months or less.
Under its Immigration Levels Plan, Canada seeks to welcome an average of 110,000 immigrants through Express Entry each year.
Provincial Nominee Program (PNP)
Through the Provincial Nominee Programs (PNP), Canada’s provinces and territories can nominate people who wish to immigrate to Canada and reside in a particular province. Canada seeks to welcome over 100,000 immigrants per year under the PNP.
All provinces and territories, except for Quebec and Nunavut, has its own PNP. Each province determines its own criteria for choosing eligible candidates. PNPs operate Expression of Interest (EOI) systems, similar to Express Entry, and invite the highest scoring candidates in regular draws.
You do not need to have an Express Entry profile to apply. You can apply directly to a PNP stream. These are called ‘base’ streams.
You can also apply to PNP streams that are aligned with Express Entry. These are called ‘enhanced’ streams. The benefit of applying to an enhanced stream is that it gives you more options.
Receiving a provincial nomination through these streams awards Express Entry candidates an additional 600 Comprehensive Ranking System (CRS) points. This practically guarantees receiving an invitation to apply for permanent residence in a subsequent Express Entry draw.
The province of Quebec has its own immigration system with its own selection criteria that is separate from Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) programs and also separate from the PNP. Applicants who are selected to immigrate to Quebec are given a Quebec Selection Certificate, or Certificat de sélection du Québec (CSQ). This is a document that is issued by Quebec’s Immigration Ministry.
You are able to apply for a CSQ through one of Quebec’s immigration programs.
The Quebec Skilled Worker Program (QSWP) is for skilled workers who wish to immigrate to Quebec and become permanent residents of Canada.
The Quebec Experience Program (PEQ) is popular among international students who have completed their post-secondary education in Quebec. This program is also for foreign skilled workers with work experience in the province.
Quebec also boasts business immigration programs aimed at entrepreneurs and self-employed individuals who wish to run a business in Quebec, as well as those who want to obtain permanent residence in the province as immigrant investors.
Atlantic Immigration Program
Atlantic Canada has its own immigration program called the Atlantic Immigration Program (AIP). The AIP that allows employers to attract and retain foreign talent. Atlantic Canada includes four provinces:
- New Brunswick
- Newfoundland and Labrador
- Nova Scotia
- Prince Edward Island
Employers who wish to benefit from the AIP must find a suitable candidate and offer them a job. They do not need to conduct a Labour Market Impact Assessment. Once the candidate accepts the offer, the employer must connect the candidate with a designated organization that will help him or her develop a settlement plan. Employers who wish to quickly fill the position may also have access to a temporary work permit.
Other Federal Skilled Worker Programs
- Rural and Northern Immigration Pilot (RNIP)
- Agri-Food Immigration Pilot
- Home Child Care Provider Pilot
- Home Support Worker Pilot
The RNIP allows small and remote communities across Canada to attract and retain foreign workers. Participating communities take the lead in attracting new immigrants and matching them with suitable jobs.
The Agri-Food Immigration Pilot provides a pathway to Canadian permanent residence to eligible temporary foreign workers in the Agriculture and Agri-Food industry. In order to be eligible, candidates need to have completed 12 months of work experience, hold a high school diploma and meet minimum language requirements.
The remaining immigration programs provide pathways to permanent residence for foreign caregivers, including childcare providers and home support workers. Caregivers are required to have at least two years of work experience relevant to the program they are applying for.
Business people have several options that may allow you to fast-track the Canadian immigration process.
If you wish to immigrate to Quebec, the province also has its own business immigration programs. Many PNP streams also have immigration streams specifically for entrepreneurs and other business people.
If you are a U.S. citizens or resident, you have plenty of options to consider if you wish to live in Canada. Many move north to Canada from the U.S. each year to work, study or immigrate. Learn how you can be among them by visiting our dedicated page for those in the U.S.
Candidates who wish to work in Canada can choose between various options depending on their situation. For example, there is a facilitated process to help U.S. citizens work in Canada temporarily under the Canada-U.S.-Mexico Agreement (CUSMA) which is formerly known as NAFTA. The agreement also helps with intra-company transfers as well as CUSMA traders and investors.
Candidates who have a spouse or common-law partner in the U.S. may sponsor them to come to Canada. In addition, U.S. citizens and residents have many options if they wish to immigrate to Canada to start a new business or purchase an already existing business.
The Canadian government is committed to keeping families together. As such, Canada aims to welcome over 100,000 new immigrants every year to join their family.
You will need to sign an 'undertaking' in order to sponsor your family. This means that you will be financially responsible for the person you will sponsor. For example, if they require social assistance, you may have to pay it back.
For parents and grandparents, there is also the Super Visa program option.
1. Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada's Website
IRCC's website provides information on all of Canada's permanent and temporary visa pathways. It also has FAQs, contact information, and the forms you need to submit your Canadian immigration application.
2. CanadaVisa.com Forum
The CanadaVisa.com Forum is the largest Canadian immigration discussion board in the world, with millions of visitors each year and hundreds of thousands of members. The Forum contains sections on all aspects of Canadian immigration.
3. CanadaVisa Tools and Resources
CanadaVisa offers many additional tools and resources to support your immigration journey. These include:
- Immigration Assessment Form: Find out if you are eligible for skilled worker immigration.
- Express Entry CRS Calculator: Calculate your Express Entry Comprehensive Ranking System (CRS) score.
- Improve your Express Entry CRS Score: Learn how you can maximize your CRS score.
- Canada PNP Finder: Learn more about all of Canada's Provincial Nominee Program streams.
- Family Sponsorship: Discover Canadian family class sponsorship options.
- Canada Work Permits: Read our section on how to work in Canada on a temporary basis.
- Canada Study Options: Learn how to study in Canada as an international student.
- cicnews.com: Find the latest Canada immigration news.
- Contact Cohen Immigration Law: Ask our law firm your questions about Canadian immigration.
There are over 100 different pathways to immigrate to Canada. If you wish to find out which way is suitable for your specific situation, you are invited to fill out our free assessment form.
The easiest way to immigrate to Canada will depend on your specific situation. The easiest way to immigrate for one person may be difficult for another. Many potential candidates are quick to give up if they find out they are not eligible for a popular immigration pathway such as Express Entry. However, Canada has more than 100 immigration pathways. If you’re not eligible for one specific pathway, you may be eligible for another. This page is built to help you begin your Canada journey. Start shortlisting potential immigration pathways based on your specific situation. Do you have a degree or diploma? Do you have work experience? Are you looking to start a business? There’s something for everyone.
Permanent resident status in Canada gives you the ability to live in Canada permanently, provided you stay in Canada for two years every five years. In addition, you will be granted the same rights as Canadian citizens, except the ability to vote or run for office.
Unless you have a job offer and arranged employment in Canada, you will need to prove that you have enough money to be able to settle in Canada with your family. The amount needed depends on the size of your family. For example, a family of four would need to prove they have at least CAD $24,083.
The required funds by the federal government for each family size are illustrated in the table below:
Number of family members
Funds required (CAD)
For each additional family member
It depends on the pathway you are applying under. Express Entry is Canada's main skilled worker pathway. Under the Express Entry system, the best age to immigrate to Canada is between 20 and 29 years old. This provides you with 100 Comprehensive Ranking System (CRS) points, if you are applying with a spouse, and 110 CRS points if you are applying on your own. You may still receive points for your age if you are not within this age group. For example, if you are 35 years old, you can receive between 70 and 77 points.
Keep in mind that while age is an important selection criteria, it is among other important selection criteria that Canada's federal and provincial governments consider when selecting skilled workers. You can also receive significant points for your education, work experience, language skills, a job offer, and Canadian experience. Hence, even if you are unable to obtain the maximum number of points for your age under a given federal or provincial skilled worker program, there are other ways for you to gain the points you need to successfully immigrate to Canada. One strategy you can pursue is having your spouse or partner (if you have one) as the principal applicant in your application if they score higher than you. Visit this page to learn how you can maximize your Express Entry CRS score.
Express Entry is the Canadian federal government’s application management system. It manages permanent residence applications through Canada’s three main economic class immigration programs:
- The Federal Skilled Worker Program (FSWP)
- The Federal Skilled Trades Program (FSTP)
- The Canadian Experience Class (CEC)
Canada aims to welcome an average of 110,000 immigrants through Express Entry each year which is over one-quarter of the some 400,000 new immigrants Canada seeks to welcome annually.
No, you do not need a job offer to submit your Express Entry profile. The vast majority of candidates who succeed under Express Entry do not have a job offer. However, a job offer may increase your chances of receiving an invitation to apply for permanent residence. This is because a job offer, awards you additional CRS points.
If you are eligible for the Federal Skilled Worker Program (FSWP) or the Federal Skilled Trades Program (FSTP), and you do not have the required settlement funds to support yourself, you will need to have a job offer.
The first step is for you to fill out the online form on the website of Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada. If you are eligible, you will be redirected to create your Express Entry profile, where you will be prompted to provide details regarding:
- Your passport or travel document
- Your Educational Credential Assessment (ECA), and
- Your language test results
- Your proof of funds
- Your job offer in Canada (if you have one)
- Your provincial nomination (if you have one)
Yes, there are many options for you to pursue. Former international students are becoming a growing share of those who become new immigrants in Canada.
Commonly, you will need to have one year of Canadian work experience but this is not always the case (e.g., if you have eligible foreign work experience, you may not need Canadian work experience to be eligible for a skilled worker program). Visit this CanadaVisa page to see the many immigration pathways available to international students.
You will need to have completed at least 12 months of full-time work experience in the last three years (1,560 hours), or the part-time equivalent (for example, 15 hours per week for 24 months) to be successful under the Canadian Experience Class (CEC).
In order to immigrate to Canada through the Provincial Nominee Program (PNP), you will need a Canadian provincial or territorial government to nominate you.
To get started, you will need to apply directly to the province or territory you are interested in immigrating to. You will then be assessed based on various factors such as your education and work experience. If you meet the province or territory’s labour needs, you may be invited to apply for a provincial nomination.
Once approved, you will be able to apply for Canadian permanent residence. Depending on the program, you may be able to apply through the Express Entry system or through the regular application process. The main benefit of going through Express Entry is a faster processing standard for your permanent residence application.
You have a few options to choose from if you are a skilled worker who wants to immigrate to Canada. These options will depend on your specific situation.
For example, highly skilled workers can explore the Federal Skilled Worker Program (FSWP). Trade workers can look into the Federal Skilled Trades Program (FSTP). Both of these programs are managed by the Express Entry system.
Candidates who wish to immigrate to a specific province or territory may be interested in the Provincial Nominee Program (PNP).
You can find out what your education is equivalent to in Canada by obtaining an ECA. Many programs also require you to obtain an ECA to apply.
To get an ECA, you will need to get your education assessed by one of the following organizations:
You must have two years of relevant work experience to prove that you will be able to become self-employed in Canada.
In addition, you will need to score at least 35 points in a selection grid designed specifically for self-employed individuals.
You will also be required to pass a medical examination and pass criminal and security checks.
If you wish to keep your permanent resident status, you are required to stay in Canada for two years (or 730 days) in the last five years. This time does not need to be continuous.
Processing times depend on the program you are applying to.
Processing times for the Provincial Nominee Program (PNP), Quebec, and other federal skilled worker programs may take six months or longer.
Family class applications tend to take some 12 months to be processed (though this can be longer or shorter).
Get a sense of processing times by using CanadaVisa's free tool.
The first step is to ensure you and your spouse or partner meet the eligibility criteria.
If you do, you need to prepare and submit two applications: one for sponsorship and one for permanent residence. Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) aims to make a decision on spousal sponsorship applications within 12 months.
If you wish to sponsor your parents or grandparents to come to Canada as permanent residents, you must submit an interest to sponsor form during the period it is available.
Once the form closes, Canada randomly selects potential sponsors and invite them to apply to sponsor their parents and/or grandparents.
If you are invited to apply, you must submit your application by the deadline mentioned in the invitation.
Another option is to apply for Parent and Grandparent Super Visa. This visa type allows parents and grandparents of Canadian citizens and permanent residents to visit Canada for up to two years. This multiple-entry visa can remain valid for up to 10 years.
Canadian citizens and permanent residents who wish to bring their dependent children to Canada must first prove their relationship with the child, whether or not the child is biological or adopted.
The sponsor must be over 18 years old to be able to sponsor. The sponsored child must be under 22 years old, unless they are financially dependent on the sponsor, and are unable to become financially dependent because of a physical or mental condition.
Canadian citizens and permanent residents are eligible to sponsor family members including their wife, husband, partner, dependent children, parents, grandparents, and in some cases, other family members.
It is not difficult to immigrate to Canada as long as you meet the eligibility criteria of a program that is the right fit for you.
Consider that Canada seeks to welcome over 400,000 new immigrants per year under its economic, family, and refugee classes. Canada operates over 100 different skilled worker programs under the economic class and some 60 per cent of all new immigrants arrive under the economic class. Hence, skilled workers overseas have a lot of options to choose from.
In addition, Canada welcomes family members including wives, husbands, partners, dependent children, parents, grandparents, and other close loved ones. As long as you and the Canadian citizen or permanent resident sponsoring you meet Canada's eligibility criteria, you will be able to immigrate to Canada.
Canada is committed to operating a successful immigration system which is why it dedicates a lot of government resources to making the immigration application process as smooth as possible.
There is no income requirement for immigrants who arrive under the family class, however the person sponsoring a family class immigrant will need to assume financial responsibilities.
Skilled workers overseas need to meet the settlement funds requirements of the given federal or provincial program they are applying under. Some exceptions apply, such as if you have an eligible job offer in Canada. Otherwise, you need to prove to the government you have enough money to be able to support yourself and your family upon your landing in Canada. The amount of money skilled requires require depends on the size of your family. Here is the amount of money required by Canada's federal government:
Number of family members
Funds required (CAD)
For each additional family member
Yes, you can immigrate to Canada as a skilled worker without a job offer, however having an eligible job offer does help. Nonetheless, the majority of successful immigrants under Express Entry do not have a job offer. Having an eligible job offer under Express Entry will get you extra points but it does not guarantee you will receive a permanent residence invitation. As long as you meet the eligibility criteria of at least one of Canada's over 100 different skilled worker programs, and receive a high score for your human capital such as your age, education, language skills, and work experience, you have a chance to successfully immigrate to Canada without a job offer.
It depends on the program you are applying under. Expression of Interest systems such as Express Entry and those operated under the Provincial Nominee Program (PNP) and Quebec do not set a points threshold to be a successful immigrant. You may need to meet a threshold to be eligible for an Expression of Interest program, but once you enter the EOI pool, the government will invite the highest scoring candidates based on their policy goals. Hence, the cut-off scores will vary based on the government's policy goals.
However, non-EOI skilled worker programs also have points thresholds and will issue permanent residence to you as long as you meet the threshold and all other eligibility criteria. The points you require to obtain Canadian permanent residence (PR) will vary by program.
Yes you can. While age is an important selection criteria, it is one of several other major factors that Canada's skilled worker and business immigration programs consider. The programs also consider your education, language skills, work experience, Canadian experience, whether you have an eligible job offer, and in the case of business programs, your business experience, net worth, and amount of money you want to invest in Canada.
While a job offer is not necessary to successfully immigrate to Canada as a skilled worker, it can help. You can gain extra points with a job offer, and some programs require a job offer.
Job offer requirements vary by program. Some programs require the job offer to fall under certain occupations or industries.
The main way to immigrate to Canada as a skilled worker is under Express Entry. According to Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada, a job offer must meet this criteria to be eligible under Express Entry:
- full-time and not a seasonal role
- is a minimum of one year in duration
- is a job that is skilled and falls under type 0, A, or B in the National Occupational Classification (NOC)
- is a recent job offer
- is not a job offer from a diplomatic mission in Canada
Usually, a job offer needs to be supported by a Labour Market Impact Assessment (LMIA), however some job offers are exempt from needing an LMIA.
Canada has a rapidly aging population and low birth rate, so there are a diversity of different job needs across the Canadian economy. Jobs are in demand in many areas such as information and communications technology (ICT), health, transportation, finance, professional services. Some of Canada's skilled worker programs do not have occupational requirements while others only select immigrants who are trained in occupations where jobs are in demand. However, the primary focus of Canada's immigration system is to select immigrants who are young and middle-aged, with strong language skills, work experience, and education. The reason for this approach is Canadian government research shows selecting immigrants with such human capital characteristics tends to result in strong job outcomes for immigrants themselves.
Yes, universal healthcare is available to Canadian citizens and permanent residents. Healthcare eligibility for new permanent residents depends on the province or territory you are landing in. Visit the following CanadaVisa page to learn about free healthcare coverage provided by each jurisdiction in Canada. Note that some provinces require new permanent residents live there for a few months before they can obtain free healthcare coverage which means you may need private health insurance during this waiting period.
Your cost of living in Canada depends on which city you will live in, the size of your family, your lifestyle, among other factors. CanadaVisa offers a dedicated section to ease your settlement in Canada.
According to Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC), household living expenses can make up half of your monthly spending in Canada. Expenses to consider include:
- home ownership or rent
- heating and utilities such as water
- leisure activities
- Health insurance (some provinces require that new permanent residents live there for a few months before they are eligible for free healthcare)
According to Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC), Canada welcomes new permanent residents from some 200 different countries each year. Canada does not have quotas for immigration, so immigrants are able to move from any part of the world as long as they meet the criteria of an economic, family, or refugee class program.
The source countries of Canada's immigrants started to become even more diverse when Canada became the first country to launch a points system with the introduction of the Federal Skilled Worker Program (FSWP) in 1967. Prior to 1967, Canada's immigrants mostly came from Europe. Since then, however, Canada's doors have opened to all corners of the globe.
Cohen Immigration Law is a leading Canadian immigration law firm with over 45 years of experience. Cohen Immigration Law is comprised of over 60 Canadian immigration lawyers, paralegals, and other professionals. We are dedicated to helping people achieve their Canadian immigration goals. We assist in areas including skilled worker and business immigration, family sponsorship, work permits, study permits, citizenship, and inadmissibility. CanadaVisa.com was founded in 1994 as the online presence of Cohen Immigration Law. CanadaVisa has since blossomed into the one of the world's most trusted resources on Canadian immigration. Please reach out for assistance. We're happy to help:
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