Buying a Car in Canada

Last updated: 21 July 2023

Buying a car in Canada CV Page

Buying a car in a new country can be daunting—from paperwork to pre-approval. 

We have created the following webpage to help newcomers navigate the Canadian car-buying market, including financing options, online tools and resources, needed documents, purchasing choices, and more.

Table of Contents


This page covers information on buying a car in Canada for newcomers, including details about auto-insurance, buying a new vs. used car, associated costs, auto-scams and necessary safety checks. Read on to learn further about purchasing your first vehicle in Canada, necessary registration steps, and more. 

To learn more about driving in Canada, visit our dedicated page here

How can I buy a car in Canada?

Buying a car can be a big decision for many individuals and often requires a few steps depending on one’s needs and buying conditions.

This process can be broadly broken down into:

  • Planning—considering budget, buying a new vs. used car, and what essential features you want out of your car;
  • Pre-purchase—understanding buying and financing options, different kinds of sellers, pre-approval and down payments for auto loans, and getting auto insurance; and
  • Registration and ownership—This includes getting your car registered with your provincial government, understanding and finding your car’s and paying associated costs.


Should I buy a new or used car in Canada?

When deciding between buying a new or used car in Canada, there are several factors to consider.

Firstly, pricing and depreciation play a significant role. New cars come with a higher price tag compared to equivalent used cars, and they experience significant depreciation in their first few years. Cars in Canada typically lose 20% of their value in the first year and continue to lose 5-10% in subsequent years. This means that buying a slightly older version of the same car can result in significant savings and minimise the impact of depreciation.

Warranty coverage is another aspect to consider. New cars generally come with manufacturer warranties that provide peace of mind and potential cost savings down the road. While some used cars may have remaining manufacturer warranties, additional coverage can be limited. On a similar note wear and tear can be a key factor for those who prefer a car in pristine condition. Used cars may have accumulated mileage and signs of use.

Notably. financing terms differ between new and used cars. New car dealerships may offer special financing terms, including low or even 0% interest rates. Additionally, the base interest rates on new cars are generally lower than those for used cars due to their reliability and easier depreciation estimation. However, the savings associated with purchasing a pre-owned car can still outweigh the higher interest rates, making it a viable option for many buyers.

Car insurance rates are typically lower for used cars compared to new ones since newer vehicles are more expensive to repair. However, new cars often come equipped with advanced safety features that can lower insurance costs. If a used car has similar safety features, it can provide a more affordable insurance option.

Options and specific features are also factors to consider. New cars offer the advantage of easily finding and customizing a vehicle with specific features. In contrast, pre-owned cars may require more time and effort to find the exact combination of features desired. However, platforms like Clutch offer a wide inventory of pre-owned vehicles, making it easier to search for specific features and potentially find the perfect car at a significantly lower price.

What is the second-hand car market like in Canada? What should I keep in mind before buying a used car in Canada?

Canada has a strong culture of second-hand car buying, most prominent in provinces with big population centres like Ontario, Quebec, British Columbia and Alberta.

While the prices of the second-hand market often depend on retail pricing, supply, and demand of the new car market at a given time—Canada’s used car market is generally comprehensive enough where people can usually find a vehicle of their liking at their chosen price point. Used cars are usually sold by specific dealerships, however, can be sold by private sellers as well.

When buying a used car, there are several important factors to keep in mind.

Firstly, be cautious when dealing with private sellers (more on this later). While they may offer better prices, they typically cannot provide warranties or guarantees, leaving you with potential risks. If purchasing from a private seller, always test drive the car and schedule a thorough inspection to assess its condition.

Knowing your prospective car’s Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) can be very beneficial, especially as some provinces require an official vehicle history report when purchasing a car. A VIN is a number unique to each vehicle sold in North America—with it you can look information on each car through history reports. There are third-party services that can provide vehicle reports here—one trusted supplier is CARFAX, a company that can provide reliable car reports that include a vehicle’s accident history, unfixed safety recalls, service history and more. Additionally, these reports can help assess whether there are any liens (outstanding payments like overdue loan payments) associated with your new car, a key consideration when finalising a purchase. These vehicle history reports usually cost between $50-60 CAD.

Warranty and guarantee are crucial considerations when buying a used car. Reputable car dealerships often offer warranties or money-back guarantees on certified pre-owned or used cars. Some vehicles may even have remaining manufacturer warranties. These protections can safeguard against unforeseen mechanical issues and misrepresentation by the seller.

Lastly, inspections are essential to identify any potential problems with a used car. Safety inspections are required in most provinces when registering your car with the provincial government (whether your vehicle is new or used). In provinces where this is required, you must take your vehicle to an inspection station authorised by the Ministry of Transportation—however in provinces where this is not a requirement you can use a trusted third-party mechanic to do your safety inspections. Canada does have federal laws in place to protect buyers who may have bought a car with an irreparable defect.

What budget considerations should I make before buying a car in Canada?

  • Income: Calculate your take-home income after taxes. Experts suggest allocating 10%–15% of your income towards transportation, including car payments, insurance, and fuel, however, this range is flexible based on your specific financial situation, such as high housing costs in your area;
  • Existing Debt: Debt obligations like student loans, medical bills, or credit card balances can significantly impact your car-buying budget. Take into consideration the portion of your income already dedicated to any existing debt payments;
  • Financing: If you opt for a financing option, this should be considered within your monthly expenses (more on this later); and
  • Taxes and Fees: Remember that the purchase price doesn't encompass all costs. Additional expenses include taxes and fees, such as sales tax (excluding some states), registration fees (typically $30 to $50), tag and title fees, and potential documentation or dealer fees (varies by location).

What essential features should I consider when buying a car in Canada?

Outside of budget considerations, some other things to consider when choosing a specific model of car include:

    • Car Performance & Specs: Considering the performance and features of your chosen vehicle is crucial to making the right purchase for your needs. Look for factors like technology, design, speed, and other specifications that align with your preferences. For instance, one common consideration when buying a car in Canada is clearance (or how far from the ground the car chassis sits) as this impacts driving in the snow;

    • Safety & Reliability: Safety and reliability are often top priorities when buying a car. Some common safety features include driver assistance technologies, rear-view cameras, blind-spot monitoring, and lane departure warning systems. You can also find safety ratings for vehicle crash-worthiness through the National Highway and Traffic Safety Administration or the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. Lastly vehicles manufactured in Canada must meet a production safety standards that earn a National Safety Mark, to authorize that production complies with safety regulations outlined in Canada’s Motor Vehicle Safety Act. New buyers can cross-reference these three resources to get an idea of applicable safety ratings; and

    • Fuel Efficiency: Understanding the fuel efficiency and reliability of your potential car is crucial: opting for a vehicle that offers better fuel economy and requires fewer repairs, ultimately saves money and provides a much better driving experience. In Canada, this can be an especially important consideration with higher gasoline costs and cold weather. Fuel economy can drop anywhere from 7-35% in cold weather, meaning that bad fuel economies tend to exaggerate through much of the year. However, the Canadian auto-market offers a variety of options (including electric vehicles, hybrids, and fuel-efficient gasoline cars) to meet this need.

    What kind of cars are available in Canada?

    Canada automobile market offers a range of vehicles from manufacturers around the world—many of whom also have manufacturing facilities in Canada. Some of the top car brands in Canada by sales include:

      • Chevrolet;
      • Dodge;
      • Ford;
      • General Motors;
      • GMC;
      • Honda;
      • Honda;
      • Hyundai;
      • Kia;
      • Nissan;
      • Toyota; and
      • Volkswagen;


      How does car pricing in Canada work? What is MSRP?

      There are largely six factors that determine the price of a car in Canada:

        • Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Price (MSRP): The MSRP, also known as the list price or "window sticker" price, serves as the starting point for negotiations at new car dealerships. While it is possible to negotiate a lower price, high demand for certain vehicles may result in selling prices above the MSRP.
        • Dealer Invoice Price: The dealer invoice price represents the actual amount the dealer pays to the manufacturer for the vehicle. There may be some variation in this price, and understanding the margin between the invoice price and the MSRP can help buyers negotiate a better deal.
        • Rebates, Incentives, and Special Offers: Car dealers often provide special promotions, factory or dealer rebates, and other incentives to boost car sales. It is beneficial to research and be aware of these programs offered by manufacturers and dealerships, as they can lead to significant savings when purchasing a car. In addition, some provinces in Canada offer specific rebates and incentives on electric vehicles, due to their environmentally sustainable nature.
        • Market Demand and Supply: The dynamics of supply and demand in the car market can influence prices. If a particular make or model is in high demand, it may result in a higher selling price due to limited availability. Conversely, if a car is not in demand, dealers may be more willing to offer discounts.
        • Vehicle Features and Options: The price of a car can vary based on its features, options, and trim levels. Additional features and upgrades can increase the overall price of the vehicle, while opting for more basic configurations may result in a lower price.
        • Seasonal Sales, clearance events, and promotions: Throughout the year, car dealerships may have seasonal sales events or clearance promotions to clear out older inventory and make room for new models. Taking advantage of these events can lead to cost savings when purchasing a new car.

          When is the best time to buy a car in Canada?

          While there are many determing factors to the best time to buy a car, there are some specific periods that often see reductions in vehicle prices in Canada. These include:

          • Slow sale periods (usually during winter months);
          • End of month clearances, as dealers make way for new show-piece vehicles; and
          • End of year clearances, as dealers look to clear inventory for the coming year. 

          Who can sell cars in Canada?

          In Canada there are broadly two options for sellers that you can buy a car from: dealerships and private sellers.

          Dealerships can sell new or used vehicles and operate as legal businesses with ties to car manufacturers. As a result, cars from dealerships have to be up to safety regulation and standard, as well as be properly appraised when priced. In addition, many dealerships can offer in-house financing options and are connected to banks for further options. Dealerships can also offer lease agreements with buy-out or return options upon term completion.

          Private sellers on the other hand are private individuals who are selling their own used vehicles. While often featuring cars at a much lower price than dealerships, private sellers can be risky as they are not part of legal businesses, and thus are not bound to the same standards. In addition, private sellers can generally not offer financing options on vehicles.

          What are some online channels/platforms where I can find cars for sale?

          In addition to traditional channels like car dealerships and classifieds sections, there are several popular online platforms that newcomers can use when assessing their vehicle buying options. Some of these include:

            • Google—Google maps can be an easy and quick way to assess car buying options in your area (note that Google can only show registered dealerships however, and cannot show you used car sellers;
            •—Canada’s largest online automobile marketplace for new and used cars; and
            • Kijji—Canada’s largest online classifieds section, offering used car postings that span Canada, with the ability to filter results to your local area;
            • Facebook Marketplace—Another classifieds forum, Facebook Marketplace has direct integration to Facebook, making it easy to use when looking for used car sellers in your area;
            • Canada Auto Experts—A platform that offers pre-approval and online shopping options for automobiles in Canada; and
            • Car Pages—A Canada-wide car selling platform with a large database and detailed search filters, that also offers financing and insurance options.

            What car financing options are available to me in Canada?

            Car financing options in Canada fall into two main categories (with slight variations depending on the specifics of the borrowing or rental agreement). These are: car loans, and car leases.

            What is the difference between a car lease and a car loan? Which one is right for me?

            In Canada, individuals commonly rely on borrowing money to purchase a vehicle, and two popular financing options are car loans and car leases.

            With a car loan, you can apply for financing at various dealerships, and repay the loan within a set time frame. You also have the flexibility to pay off a portion or the entire loan amount ahead of schedule. Additionally, some banks in Canada provide the possibility of securing a loan even without a Canadian credit history.

            When opting for a car loan, you have the opportunity to borrow up to the full purchase price of the vehicle. By making regular payments over time, typically one to five years, you gradually repay the loan amount. Eventually, upon full repayment, you become the outright owner of the car. Importantly in some provinces, a second-hand car cannot be leased unless it is Certified Pre-Owned (which means the car has met manufacturer standard of rigorous safety and performance inspections).

            On the other hand, a car lease involves paying a monthly amount to a leasing company for a specific duration, typically one to five years. Once the lease term concludes, you return the vehicle to the dealer, unless you choose to purchase it at the predetermined price mentioned in the lease agreement. It's important to note that leases often have limitations on the maximum number of kilometers you can drive per year, and additional charges may apply if you exceed this limit. Regular servicing of the leased vehicle is typically required, and breaking a lease before the agreed-upon term can result in penalties.

            Leasing is a suitable choice if you prefer driving a new vehicle every two to three years. With a lease, you make monthly payments to a leasing company for a predetermined period, typically ranging from one to five years. At the conclusion of the lease term, you return the car to the dealership, unless you decide to purchase it based on the price specified in your lease agreement.

            To determine whether a car loan or lease is more suitable for your situation, it's essential to consider your vehicle usage and affordability. If you intend to drive the car extensively or plan to keep it for an extended period, a car loan might be a better fit. However, if you prefer regularly upgrading to newer models and prefer lower monthly payments, a car lease could be a viable option.

            How does getting pre-approval for a car loan work in Canada?

            The process of pre-approval for a car loan in Canada is similar to other types of loan pre-approvals, such as mortgages. To determine if they are willing to offer you a car loan, the lender evaluates your income, debts, and credit score. If approved, the pre-approval specifies the maximum loan amount and possibly the interest rate. These terms will apply if you proceed with a finance application for a specific vehicle. Some lenders may provide information on estimated monthly or bi-weekly payments, but if not, you can use a car loan calculator to get a rough estimate quickly.

            Typically, lenders do not require a driver's license, proof of income, or consent for a hard credit check until you decide to proceed with a finance application for a specific vehicle. However, they may request additional documentation, such as a utility bill with your name and address, for identification verification.

            The benefit of having a car loan pre-approval is that it allows you to shop for a vehicle with confidence. You know exactly what you can afford, which helps narrow down your choices to vehicles within your price range. Additionally, you won't have to worry about securing financing after an extensive car search. Pre-approval terms usually last between 14 to 45 days, depending on the lender.

            It's important to note that a car loan pre-approval can potentially impact your credit, depending on how the lender checks your credit report. A "hard pull" involves a conventional credit check that can affect your credit score. However, multiple hard pulls within a short timeframe, typically a few weeks, should not significantly impact your rating, as credit bureaus recognise when someone is rate shopping for a loan. On the other hand, "soft pulls" do not impact your credit score and are often used for credit checks when there is no specific loan application involved. Many car loan lenders now use soft pulls, making it easier to get pre-approved without affecting your credit rating. If you proceed with the vehicle purchase, the lender will then perform a hard pull as part of the official loan application.

            What documents do I need for a car loan/lease in Canada?

            While there is some variation depending on the specific lender that you are working with, most will ask for your:

            • Government issued ID/Proof of identity;
            • Valid Government issued driver’s licence;
            • Credit score (depending on lender);
            • Current pay-stub; and
            • Vehicle information (if your lender is separate from the seller).

            Do I need a Canadian credit score to obtain a car loan in Canada?

            While lenders in Canada generally do ask for credit scores when attempting pre-approval for a car loan, this is not always necessary. Some lenders do offer low-interest car loans in Canada without the need for a credit score prior. This however does depend on many factors, including one’s driving history, current occupation, and more.

            In addition, some auto-lenders have the ability to perform international credit checks in trying to assess whether you can pay back the auto-loan or not. This can be hugely beneficial to newcomers to Canada, who may find themselves needing to buy aƒ car, without having the time in Canada prior to build a good credit score.

            How does making a down-payment for a car in Canada work?

            A down payment is the initial cash payment you make towards the purchase of a car, reducing the loan amount you need to borrow. The amount of down payment you need for a car in Canada depends on various factors such as your credit score, income, and the price of the vehicle.

            Lenders generally require a down payment of at least 10% of the car's purchase price. However, a larger down payment can have several benefits. It reduces the overall loan amount, which means lower monthly payments and less interest paid over time. A larger down payment can also improve your chances of getting approved for a loan, especially if you have a lower credit score or limited income.

            The ideal down payment amount varies depending on individual circumstances but aiming for 20% or more is often recommended. This not only improves loan terms but also reduces the risk of negative equity, where you owe more on the car than it's worth.

            It's essential to consider your budget and financial goals when deciding on a down payment. While a larger down payment is advantageous, it's important to ensure you have enough cash left for other expenses and emergencies.

            If you don't have enough cash for a significant down payment, there are alternatives. You can trade in your current vehicle, apply for a cash-back offer, or explore financing options with a dealership. However, it's crucial to carefully evaluate the terms and interest rates associated with these alternatives.

            Ultimately, the down payment for a car in Canada is a personal decision based on your financial situation and goals. It's recommended to consult with lenders, financial advisors, or car loan specialists to determine the most suitable down payment amount for your circumstances.

            What documents do I need to bring with me to buy a car in Canada?

            Though there is some variation depending on where you reside, and the automobile seller that you are dealing with, to buy a car in Canada you generally need:

            • A valid driver’s licence;
            • Proof of car insurance (more on this later); and
            • Vehicle registration (though this pertains more to owning rather than buying a car, as most people do this after purchase).

            Note that before picking up your car you must show proof of auto insurance, whether to a dealer or a private seller.

            To learn more about driving in Canada, visit our dedicated webpage here

            How does auto-insurance work in Canada?

            Auto insurance in Canada operates by providing financial protection in case of accidents or damages involving your vehicle. It is mandatory for all drivers to have auto insurance to legally operate a vehicle in Canada. Car buyers must show proof of auto-insurance on the day they pick up their vehicle.

            Auto insurance policies consist of various coverage types. The most common one is liability coverage, which protects you if you cause injury or property damage to others in an accident. This coverage helps pay for the other party's medical bills, vehicle repairs, or legal expenses.

            In addition to liability coverage, you can choose to include other types of coverage based on your needs. Collision coverage pays for repairs to your vehicle in case of a collision, regardless of fault. Comprehensive coverage covers damages caused by events such as theft, vandalism, or natural disasters. There's also accident benefits coverage, which provides medical and income replacement benefits if you're injured in an accident.

            The cost of auto insurance premiums in Canada depends on various factors, including your driving history, age, type of vehicle, location, and coverage choices. Insurance companies assess the level of risk associated with insuring you and your vehicle to determine the premium amount.

            To obtain auto insurance, you need to provide information about your driving record, vehicle details, and personal information. The insurance company will assess this information to determine your premium and coverage options. It's essential to accurately disclose all relevant information to ensure proper coverage.

            In case of an accident or damage, you need to report the incident to your insurance company promptly. They will guide you through the claims process and assess the damages. Depending on the situation, you may need to pay a deductible before the insurance company covers the remaining costs.

            It's important to review and understand your policy documents to know the coverage limits, exclusions, and deductibles. You can also make adjustments to your coverage as needed, such as increasing liability limits or adding optional coverage.

            To ensure the best insurance rates, maintaining a clean driving record and shopping around for quotes from different insurers can be beneficial. Understanding the terms and conditions of your auto insurance policy is crucial for making informed decisions and protecting yourself financially in case of accidents or damages.

            Are auto-scams a threat in Canada, and how can I protect myself?

            Though not hugely prevalent, Auto scams can be a concern when buying a used car in Canada, but there are ways to protect yourself. Here are some common auto scams and tips to avoid them:

            • Odometer Fraud: Dishonest sellers may tamper with the odometer to show lower mileage, making the car seem more valuable. Protect yourself by obtaining a vehicle history report, inspecting maintenance records, and looking for signs of wear inconsistent with the claimed mileage;
            • Title Washing: Some sellers may conceal a vehicle's history of damage by moving it between provinces to obtain a clean title. Always check the vehicle's history through a reputable service like Carfax or request a comprehensive inspection;
            • Salvage Scams: Scammers may sell salvaged or rebuilt vehicles without disclosing their true history. Conduct a thorough inspection and be cautious if the price seems too good to be true;
            • Curbsiders: These illegal dealers pose as private sellers to avoid regulation and sell vehicles with hidden problems. Research the seller, request identification, and be wary if they can't provide accurate vehicle information;
            • VIN Cloning: Criminals may steal a vehicle and replace its VIN with a legitimate one from a similar model. Verify the VIN on the car matches the documentation and consider a professional inspection;
            • Online Purchase Scams: Be cautious when buying a car online, especially if the seller requests payment before you see the vehicle. Meet in person, inspect the car thoroughly, and complete the transaction securely; and
            • Financing and Warranty Scams: Beware of high-pressure sales tactics or misleading financing terms. Read contracts carefully, research warranty providers, and consult a trusted financial advisor if needed.

            To protect yourself from these scams, it's essential to conduct thorough research, and ask questions. Obtain vehicle history reports, inspect the car, and consider hiring a professional, third-party mechanic for a comprehensive inspection. Additionally, be cautious of deals that seem too good to be true, and always complete transactions securely and through reputable channels.

            Registration and Ownership

            What registration steps do I need to take once I purchase my car?

            In Canada, once a vehicle is purchased it must be registered with the provincial government that you reside in. This vehicle registration process varies slightly from province to province but is generally straightforward. At the end of the process, you should receive a vehicle registration certificate or permit, proving your vehicle’s registration.

            To register your vehicle with your provincial government, you will need specific documents including:

              • A driver's licence;
              • Bill of sale signed by the buyer and seller;
              • Transfer of ownership document, licence plate number and previous registration papers (if registering a previously registered car under a new owner);
              • A safety inspection number or certificate, known by different names depending on the province;
              • Proof of auto insurance (sometimes referred to as a pink slip and possibly other insurance documents);
              • Other vehicle information, such as the odometer reading and VIN; and
              • Payment of sales tax, which varies by province (some offer sales tax exemptions for gifts between family members);

              Note that any unpaid or pending fines in the name of the new owner must also be paid before registration of a new vehicle.

              Additionally, when registering licence plates as a new owner of a used vehicle, the general rule is that number plates stay with individuals (i.e.: if you bought a used car the seller would retain the old number plates and you would receive new number plates once registration of your new car is complete). This rule is, however, flipped in Newfoundland and Labrador, with licence plates instead staying with individual vehicles.

              Below is a link to each province’s specific government (or relevant authority) page which details specifics of registering a new vehicle in each provincial jurisdiction:

              Are there any other associated costs that are included in buying a car?

              When buying a car in Canada, there are several associated costs that go beyond the purchase price. Some of the most prevalent associated costs include:

                • Taxes: You will need to pay sales tax, which varies by province or territory, on the purchase price of the vehicle. Additionally, there may be other taxes and fees such as goods and services tax (GST) or harmonized sales tax (HST);
                • Registration and Licensing: Once you own the car, you'll need to register and license it with the provincial or territorial government. This process incurs fees that cover license plates and vehicle registration. To learn more about driving in Canada and getting licenced, please visit our dedicated webpage here;
                • Insurance: Auto insurance is mandatory in Canada. The cost of insurance depends on factors such as your driving record, age, location, and the type of vehicle you're insuring. It's important to shop around for the best insurance rates and coverage options;
                • Maintenance and Repairs: Owning a car involves regular maintenance, including oil changes, tire rotations, and brake inspections. You should budget for these routine maintenance costs. Additionally, unexpected repairs or replacements may arise, so having an emergency fund is advisable;
                • Fuel: The cost of fuel is an ongoing expense to consider. It varies based on fuel prices and your driving habits. Fuel-efficient vehicles can help reduce these costs;
                • Depreciation: Though not a direct cost, cars generally lose value over time, known as depreciation. Understanding the depreciation rate of your vehicle is important, as it affects its resale value and potential future trade-ins;
                • Parking and Tolls: If you live in an urban area, you may have to pay for parking. Additionally, tolls may apply when using certain highways or bridges;
                • Financing Costs: If you finance the purchase of the car through a loan, you'll have to pay interest charges on the borrowed amount. The interest rate depends on factors such as your credit score and the length of the loan term; and
                • Optional Extras: If you want to add optional extras to your vehicle, such as extended warranties, additional features, or customisation, these will come at an extra cost.

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