Canada is what is known as a "Democratic Federation" with both federal and provincial levels of government.

Responsibilities and powers are divided between the federal branch and its provincial executives. Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) is a department of the government of Canada.

The government of Canada and the Canadian political system are quite complex, and based loosely on the British Westminster system. The system Canada follows today was initially drafted by the "Fathers of Confederation" in 1864, and became law in 1867 when the Constitution Act was passed. The Act gave executive authority to the Queen of Great Britain and Ireland (as was the official title for the Monarch at the time), which made Canada a sovereign constitutional monarchy.

The federal government has the power to create laws for the peace, order, and responsible government of Canada. This includes federal jurisdictions such as international affairs, defence, immigration, criminal law, customs and border control. The provincial governments are responsible for, or share jurisdiction over, healthcare, education, and driver licensing and registrations, among other items.

The Canadian political establishment is centered in Ottawa, Canada's capital, with the two houses of Parliament situated on Parliament Hill. There is an upper house, The Senate, and a lower house, The House of Commons. Members of the House of Commons are called "Members of Parliament" (MPs), and are elected by the people to represent their interests and deliberate on various national issues affecting Canadians.

Electoral districts are divided into geographical areas known as ridings. The candidate with the most votes in the riding in which he or she is standing for office wins the authority to act in the best interests of the riding by taking his or her "seat" in Parliament.

The provincial political systems are based on the same doctrine as its federal counterpart. The provincial governments are referred to as "Legislative Assemblies" (except the "National Assembly" of Quebec), and the Queen's representative in each Assembly is called the "Lieutenant Governor". Generally, every four or five years an election is called by the reigning Premier. Pending the results of the election, the Lieutenant Governor will ask the leader of the party with the most seats in the Assembly to become the Premier of the province and form a government.

Latest News

  • Manitoba Invites Skilled Workers to Apply for Provincial Nomination in August 15 Draw

    The province of Manitoba has invited a total of 443 skilled workers to settle in the province as permanent residents in a draw that took place on August 15. These candidates, plus their family members, are now in a position to apply for immigration to Manitoba through the Manitoba Provincial Nominee Program (MPNP).

  • Saskatchewan Occupations In-Demand Intake Fills in 24 Hours

    The International Skilled Worker - Occupations In-Demand sub-category of the Saskatchewan Immigrant Nominee Program (SINP) has closed for new applications, just one day after reopening for 1,200 new applications on August 9. Through this 'base' SINP sub-category, which is not aligned with the federal Express Entry immigration selection system, eligible skilled workers with experience in an in-demand occupation can make an application for a provincial nomination certificate, which may then be followed by an application for Canadian permanent residence. Applicants do not require a job offer.