Canada Immigration: Government and Political SystemCanada is what is known as a "Democratic Federation" with both Federal and Provincial levels of Government. The responsibilities and powers are divided between the Federal branch and its Provincial executives. Citizenship and Immigration Canada - CIC - is a department of the government of Canada.
The government of Canada and the Canadian political system are quite elaborate and is based loosely on British rule. The system we follow today was initially drafted by the "Fathers of Confederation" in 1864, and became law in 1867 when the constitution act was passed. The Act consigned the executive authority over to the Queen of England (UK), which made Canada a sovereign democracy.
The Federal Government has the power to create laws for the peace, order, and responsible government of Canada. This includes federal jurisdictions such as International policies, Defense, Immigration, Criminal Law, Customs, and Border control. The Provincial Government is responsible for health care, education, driver licensing and registrations and controls the Provincial budget among other things.
The Canadian political complex is centered in Ottawa, Canada's capital, in a building called "The House of Commons". Government officials called "Members of Parliament" (MP's) are elected by the People to represent their interests and deliberate on various national issues affecting Canadians.
The Canadian government is divided into constituencies; the candidate with the most votes in the region they represent (riding) wins the authority to act in the best interest of the constituency by taking their "seat" in the Parliament.
The Provincial political systems are based on the same doctrine as its Federal counterpart. The Provincial Government is referred to as the "Legislative Assembly" and the Queen's representative in the Assembly is the called the "Lieutenant Governor". Normally, every 4 to 5 years an election is called by the reigning Premier. Pending the results of the election, the Lieutenant Governor will ask the leader of the party with the most "seats" to become the Premier of the Province and form the Government.