Qualifying Occupations for Federal Skilled Worker

One way to qualify for Canadian immigration as a Federal Skilled Worker is to have at least one year of continuous full-time or equivalent paid work experience in the past 10 years in one of the following 50 qualifying occupations.

The qualifying occupations are listed by NOC (National Occupational Classification) and are based on the main duties performed. This list of open occupations was updated to reflect ministerial instructions issued on April 23rd, 2014. Click on the occupation title below to see if your occupation is among the qualifying occupations for the Federal Skilled Worker Category.

A maximum of 1,000 applications will be accepted under any one qualifying occupation. Click here to see how many applications have been received to date.

Senior managers are usually appointed by a board of directors, to which they report. They work either alone or with the board of directors to develop and establish objectives for the company, and to develop or approve policies and programs. They plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate, through middle managers, the operations of their organization. They work in a wide range of fields such as telecommunications, finance, insurance, real estate, and data processing, hosting and related services industries as well as other business service industries.

Description of Main Duties:

Senior Managers perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Determine the company's mission and strategic direction.
  • Authorize and organize the establishment of major departments and associated senior staff positions.
  • Allocate resources to implement organizational policies and programs; establish financial and administrative controls; formulate and approve promotional campaigns; and approve overall human resources planning
  • Select middle managers, directors or other executive staff and delegate authority to them
  • Represent the organization, or delegate representatives to act on behalf of the organization, in negotiations or other official functions

Sample Occupation Titles

  • President (communication, human resources, marketing, etc)
  • Vice-President
  • CEO
  • Corporate Controller
  • Executive Manager
  • General Manager

Senior managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate, usually using middle managers. They work in trade, broadcasting and other service companies not elsewhere classified. They formulate policies which establish the direction to be taken by their companies, either alone or in conjunction with a board of directors. They work in establishments in broadcasting and related media services, wholesale trade, retail trade, accommodation and food service, and other services not elsewhere classified.

Description of Main Duties

Senior Managers perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Establish objectives for the company and formulate or approve policies and programs
  • Authorize and organize the establishment of major departments and associated senior staff positions
  • Allocate resources to implement organizational policies and programs; establish financial and administrative controls; formulate and approve promotional campaigns; and approve overall personnel planning
  • Select middle managers, directors or other executive staff
  • Co-ordinate the work of regions, divisions or departments
  • Represent the company, or delegate representatives to act on behalf of the company, in negotiations or other official functions.
  • Employment Requirements
  • The following education and experience is usually, but not always, held by senior managers

Sample Occupation Titles

  • President (broadcasting, food services, trade, etc)
  • Vice-President
  • CEO
  • Corporate Controller
  • Executive Manager
  • General Manager

Financial managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operation of financial and accounting departments. They develop and implement the financial policies and systems of their organizations. Financial managers establish performance standards and prepare various financial reports for senior management. They are employed in financial and accounting departments in companies throughout the private and public sectors.

Description of Main Duties

Financial Managers perform some or all of the following tasks:

  • Plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operation of an accounting, audit or other financial department
  • Develop and implement the financial policies, systems and procedures of an establishment
  • Prepare or co-ordinate the preparation of financial statements, summaries, and other cost-benefit analyses and financial management reports
  • Co-ordinate the financial planning and budget process, and analyze and correct estimates
  • Supervise the development and implementation of financial simulation models
  • Evaluate financial reporting systems, accounting procedures and investment activities and make recommendations for changes
  • Recruit, organize, train and manage staff
  • Act as liaison between the organization and its shareholders, the investing public and external financial analysts
  • Establish profitability standards for investment activities and handle mergers and/or acquisitions
  • Notify and report to senior management concerning any trends that are critical to the organization's financial performance

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Controller – financial services
  • Director – financial services
  • Manager – audit, collection department, financial control/planning/analysis
  • Treasurer
  • Accounting Manager
  • Administrator – pension plans
  • Finance chief

Human resources managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of human resources and personnel departments. They also develop and implement policies, programs and procedures regarding human resource planning, recruitment, collective bargaining, training and development, occupation classification and pay and benefit administration. They represent management and participate actively on various joint committees to maintain ongoing relations between management and employees. Human resources managers are employed throughout the private and public sectors.

Description of Main Duties

Human Resources Managers perform some or all of the following tasks:

  • Plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of human resources or personnel departments
  • Plan human resource requirements in conjunction with other departmental managers
  • Co-ordinate internal and external training and recruitment activities
  • Develop and implement labour relations policies and procedures and negotiate collective agreements
  • Administer employee development, language training and health and safety programs
  • Advise and assist other departmental managers on interpretation and administration of personnel policies and programs
  • Organize and conduct employee information meetings and participate actively on various joint committees
  • Direct the organization's quality management program
  • Ensure compliance with legislation such as the Pay Equity Act

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Chief – staffing, training, staff relations, personnel, employment equity, etc
  • Director – human resources, labour relations, language training, personnel, recruiting, etc
  • Manager – human resources, benefits, employment, personnel, etc
  • Administrator – human resources, etc

Purchasing managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of a purchasing department and develop and implement the purchasing policies of an organization. They are employed throughout the public and private sectors.

Description of Main Duties

Purchasing Managers perform some or all of the following tasks:

  • Plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the purchasing activities of an establishment
  • Develop purchasing policies and procedures and control purchasing department budget
  • Identify vendors of materials, equipment or supplies
  • Evaluate cost and quality of goods or services
  • Negotiate or oversee the negotiation of purchase contracts
  • Participate in the development of specifications for equipment, products or substitute materials
  • Review and process claims against suppliers
  • Interview, hire and oversee training of staff

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Manager – purchasing, supply chain, procurement, etc
  • Purchasing Chief
  • Director – purchasing, procurement, supply management, etc
  • Contract Manager

Insurance, real estate and financial brokerage managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of departments or establishments that provide insurance, mortgage, real estate and investment services. They are generally responsible for business development and must ensure that their group reaches performance levels related to established objectives. They are employed by insurance companies, real estate firms, stockbrokers, investment dealers, mortgage brokers and security and commodity exchanges.

Description of Main Duties

Managers in this category perform some or all of the following tasks:

  • Insurance managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of an establishment or department that provides automobile, fire, life, property or other types of insurance services.
  • Real estate service managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of an establishment or department that buys, sells and leases residential and commercial property for clients.
  • Mortgage broker managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of an establishment or department that finds lenders or lending institutions on behalf of clients seeking a mortgage.
  • Securities managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operation of an establishment or department that buys and sells stocks, bonds and other forms of investments on behalf of individual or institutional clients; manage the investments of their own clients.

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Manager – insurance, real estate sales, securities and investment, trading floor, etc
  • Real Estate Developer
  • Investment Manager
  • District Manager – insurance, real estate, etc
  • Securities Manager
  • Mutual Funds Manager

This group includes managers who plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the delivery of health care services. These services can include diagnosis and treatment, nursing and therapy, etc within institutions and other settings that provide health care services. They are employed in hospitals, medical clinics, nursing homes and other health care organizations.

Description of Main Duties

Managers in this category perform some or all of the following tasks:

  • Plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the delivery of health care services within a department of a health care institution or similar setting
  • Consult with boards of directors and senior managers to maintain and establish standards for the provision of health care services
  • Develop evaluation systems to monitor the quality of health care given to patients
  • Monitor the use of diagnostic services, in-patient beds and facilities to ensure effective use of resources
  • Develop and implement plans for new programs, special projects, new material and equipment acquisitions and future staffing levels in their department or establishment
  • Plan and control departmental or establishment budget
  • Represent the department or establishment at meetings with government officials, the public, the media and other organizations
  • Supervise health care supervisors and professionals
  • Recruit health care staff of the department or establishment

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Administrator – blood bank, dental services, nursing unit, etc
  • Chief of – anesthesia, infectious diseases, emergency medicine, pathology, etc
  • Director of – nursing, rehabilitation services, dietetics, first aid services, etc.

Construction managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of a construction company or a construction department, under the direction of a general manager or other senior manager. They are employed by residential, commercial and industrial construction companies and by construction departments of companies outside the construction industry.

Description of Main Duties

Construction managers perform some or all of the following tasks:

  • Plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate construction projects from start to finish
  • Prepare and submit construction project budget estimates
  • Plan and prepare construction schedules and milestones and monitor progress
  • Prepare contracts and negotiate revisions, changes and additions to contractual agreements with architects, consultants, clients, suppliers and subcontractors
  • Develop and implement quality control programs
  • Represent company on matters such as business services and union contracts negotiation
  • Prepare progress reports and issue progress schedules to clients
  • Direct the purchase of building materials and land acquisitions
  • Hire and supervise the activities of subcontractors and subordinate staff.

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Construction Manager
  • Project Manager
  • General Contractor
  • Construction Superintendent
  • Site Manager 

Home building managers or builders own, operate and manage companies engaged in the construction of new residential homes. Home renovation managers or renovators own, operate and manage companies engaged in the renovation of existing residential homes.

Description of Main Duties

Home building and renovation managers perform some or all of the following tasks:

  • Plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of a residential home building or renovating company
  • Prepare bids for home construction or renovation projects
  • Consult with customers, architects and engineers regarding plans and specifications
  • Select, employ and supervise trade subcontractors to do specialized work, such as plumbing, heating and electrical work
  • Plan and prepare work schedules and co-ordinate the activities of subcontractors
  • Inspect work performed by subcontractors to ensure quality and conformity with plans and specifications
  • Prepare and maintain a directory of suppliers and trade subcontractors
  • Develop and implement marketing and advertising strategies to promote company's products and services
  • May perform carpentry or other trade work during home construction or renovation activities.

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Contractor – home building, home renovation
  • Rehabilitation and renovation specialist
  • Home Builder
  • Residential Homes Contractor

This group includes managers who plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of establishments in forestry and logging, mining and quarrying, oil and gas drilling, production and servicing operations, and commercial fishing.

Description of Main Duties

Managers in this group perform some or all of the following tasks:

  • Oversee and analyze operations in forestry, logging, mining, quarrying, or oil and gas operations or in services to logging, mining and oil and gas industries, or in commercial fishing
  • Recommend operational changes to senior management when necessary to ensure that production quotas and procedures are met
  • Prepare production reports for review by senior management
  • Confer with other managers to set production quotas, to plan extraction sites and to develop policies for the removal of raw materials
  • Evaluate efficiency of production sites to determine adequacy of personnel, equipment and technologies used, and make changes to work schedule or equipment when necessary
  • Ensure adherence to safety regulations
  • Hire personnel and oversee training needs of staff
  • May direct peripheral activities such as the construction of access roads or temporary living quarters.

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Manager – drilling operations, fishing operations, logging production, quarry, etc.
  • Superintendent – mine, oil and gas drilling, woods, etc.
  • Director of Mining
  • Gas Field Operations Manager

Manufacturing managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of a manufacturing establishment or of a production department within a manufacturing establishment, under the direction of a general manager or other senior manager. They are employed by manufacturing companies.

Description of Main Duties

Managers in this group perform some or all of the following tasks:

  • Plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of a manufacturing establishment or the operations or production department of a manufacturing establishment
  • Develop and implement plans to efficiently use materials, labour and equipment to meet production targets
  • Plan and manage the establishment of departmental budget
  • Develop production schedules and maintain an inventory of raw materials and finished products
  • Plan and implement changes to machinery and equipment, production systems and methods of work
  • Direct quality control inspection system and develop production reporting procedures
  • Develop equipment maintenance schedules and recommend the replacement of machines
  • Hire, supervise and train or oversee training of employees in the use of new equipment or production techniques.

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Manager – manufacturing company, paper mill, plant, distillery, etc.
  • Enologist
  • Factory Superintendent
  • Production Manager
  • Quality Control Services Manager

Financial auditors examine and analyze the accounting and financial records of individuals and establishments to ensure accuracy and compliance with established accounting standards and procedures. Accountants plan, organize and administer accounting systems for individuals and establishments. Articling students in accounting firms are included in this unit group. Financial auditors and accountants are employed by auditing and accounting firms throughout the private and public sectors, or they may be self-employed.

Description of Main Duties

Financial auditors perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Examine and analyze journal and ledger entries, bank statements, inventories, expenditures, tax returns and other accounting and financial records, documents and systems of individuals, departments within organizations, businesses or other establishments to ensure financial recording accuracy and compliance with established accounting standards, procedures and internal controls
  • Prepare detailed reports on audit findings and make recommendations to improve individual or establishment's accounting and management practices
  • Conduct field audits of businesses to ensure compliance with provisions of the Income Tax Act, Canadian Business Corporations Act or other statutory requirements
  • May supervise other auditors or professionals in charge of accounting within client's establishment.

Employment Requirements

  • Chartered accountants require a university degree and
    • Completion of a professional training program approved by a provincial institute of chartered accountants and,
    • Depending on the province, either two years or 30 months of on-the-job training and
    • Membership in a provincial Institute of Chartered Accountants upon successful completion of the Uniform Evaluation (UFE).
  • Certified general accountants and certified management accountants require a university degree and
    • Completion of a training program approved by the Society of Certified General Accountants or Society of Management Accountants and several years of on-the-job training and
    • Certification by the Certified General Accountants Association or the Society of Management Accountants
  • Auditors require education, training and recognition as indicated for chartered accountants, certified general accountants or certified management accountants and
      • Some experience as an accountant.
      • Auditors may require recognition by the Institute of Internal Auditors.
  • To act as a trustee in bankruptcy proceedings, auditors and accountants must hold a licence as a trustee in bankruptcy.
  • Licensing by the provincial or territorial governing body is usually required for accountants and auditors practising public accounting.

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Accountant
  • Auditor
  • Chartered Accountant (CA)
  • Certified Management Accountant (CMA)
  • Certified General Accountant (CGA)
  • Tax Expert
  • Accounting Analyst

Financial and investment analysts collect and analyze financial information such as economic forecasts, trading volumes and the movement of capital, financial backgrounds of companies, historical performances and future trends of stocks, bonds and other investment instruments to provide financial and investment or financing advice for their company or their company's clients. Their studies and evaluations cover areas such as takeover bids, private placements, mergers or acquisitions. Financial analysts are employed by a wide range of establishments throughout the private and public sector, such as banks, brokerage houses, insurance companies, investment companies, manufacturing firms, trust companies, utility companies and underwriting firms. Investment analysts are employed primarily by brokerage houses and fund management companies.

Description of Main Duties

Financial analysts perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Evaluate financial risk, prepare financial forecasts, financing scenarios and other documents concerning capital management, and write reports and recommendations
  • Plan short- and long-term cash flows and assess financial performance
  • Analyze investment projects
  • Advise on and participate in the financial aspects of contracts and calls for tender
  • Follow up on financing projects with financial backers
  • Develop, implement and use tools for managing and analyzing financial portfolio
  • Prepare a regular risk profile for debt portfolios
  • Assist in preparing operating and investment budgets.

Investment analysts perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Collect financial and investment information about companies, stocks, bonds and other investments using daily stock and bond reports, economic forecasts, trading volumes, financial periodicals, securities manuals, company financial statements and other financial reports and publications
  • Examine and analyze financial and investment information collected, including profiles of companies, stock and bond prices, yields and future trends and other investment information
  • Provide investment advice and recommendations to clients, senior company officials, pension fund managers, securities agents and associates
  • Prepare company, industry and economic outlooks, analytical reports, briefing notes and correspondence.

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Financial Analyst
  • Cost Financial Analyst
  • Portfolio Manager
  • Investment Analyst
  • Securities Research Analyst
  • Senior Planning and Return Analyst

Securities agents and investment dealers buy and sell stocks, bonds, treasury bills, mutual funds and other securities for individual investors, pension fund managers, banks, trust companies, insurance firms and other establishments. Brokers buy and sell stocks, bonds, commodity futures, foreign currencies and other securities at stock exchanges on behalf of investment dealers. They are employed by investment companies, stock brokerage firms, stock and commodity exchanges and other establishments in the securities industry.

Description of Main Duties

Securities agents and investment dealers perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Develop long-term relationships with their clients by preparing investment strategies to help them achieve their financial goals, offering advice and information on various investments to guide them in managing their portfolios
  • Review financial periodicals, stock and bond reports, business publications and other material, and develop a network within the financial industry to gather relevant information and identify potential investments for clients
  • Carry out investment orders by buying and selling stocks, bonds, treasury bills, mutual funds and other securities for individual investors, pension fund managers or companies such as banks, trust companies and insurance firms
  • Monitor clients' investment portfolios and ensure that investment transactions are carried out according to industry regulations.

Brokers perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Buy and sell stocks, bonds, commodity futures, foreign currencies and other securities at stock exchanges on behalf of investment dealers
  • Develop trading strategies by reviewing investment information and monitoring market conditions from the exchange floor and through contact with trading departments of other investment firms, pension fund managers and investment company financial analysts
  • Make bids and offers to buy and sell securities and complete details of sales on exchange trade tickets
  • Prepare reviews of portfolios' positions.

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Broker – investment, mutual fund, stock, etc
  • Bond Dealer
  • Arbitrager
  • Foreign Exchange Dealer
  • Trader – foreign exchange, stocks and bonds, etc

This group includes professional occupations in finance not elsewhere classified such. These include financial planners, financial examiners and inspectors, financial investigators, financial underwriters, mortgage brokers and trust officers. They are employed by banks, trust companies, investment firms and governments, or they may be self-employed.

Description of Main Duties

Individuals in this group perform some or all of the following tasks:

  • Financial planners develop personal financial plans for clients covering cash management, finances, insurance coverage, investments, retirement and estate planning, taxes and legal matters; analyze clients' financial records, set goals and develop a financial strategy; advise clients on implementing the financial plan to help them achieve their goals; may also arrange for the purchase and sale of financial products and investments depending on the licence held, and monitor the portfolio to ensure its quality and profitability; and help to expand business and attract new clients.
  • Financial examiners and inspectors review and examine banks, trust companies, credit unions, caisses populaires, credit companies, real estate companies, insurance companies, pension funds, securities brokers and other financial services and institutions to ensure compliance with governing legislation and regulations.
  • Financial investigators investigate possible unethical conduct or breaches of securities or commodity futures laws by persons or companies that trade in securities and commodity futures or that provide related financial services.
  • Financial underwriters underwrite new issues of stocks and bonds, negotiate with corporations and governments to determine the type and terms of new securities issued and prepare offering prospectuses.
  • Trust officers administer estate, personal, charitable, corporate and other types of trusts, direct trust account investments, receive and record investment income and disburse trust funds.
  • Mortgage brokers meet with clients to obtain information about income, liabilities and assets, and type, price and condition of property to be mortgaged, and negotiate mortgage loans with lenders or lending institutions on behalf of clients.

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Account Manager
  • Estate Administrator
  • Financial Management Officer
  • Inspector – banks, credit agency, etc
  • Investment Counselor
  • Securities Counselor

This group includes specialists in advertising, marketing and public relations who analyse, develop and implement communication and promotion strategies and information programs, analyse advertising needs and develop appropriate advertising and marketing plans, publicize activities and events, and maintain media relations on behalf of businesses, governments and other organizations, and for performers, athletes, writers and other talented individuals. They are employed by consulting firms, advertising agencies, corporations, associations, government, social agencies, museums, galleries, public interest groups, and cultural and other organizations, or they may be self-employed. Agents such as entertainment, literary and sports agents are included in this unit group.

Description of Main Duties

Professionals in this group perform some or all of the following tasks:

  • Assess characteristics of products or services to be promoted and advise on the advertising needs of an establishment
  • Advise clients on advertising or sales promotion strategies
  • Develop and implement advertising campaigns appropriate for print or electronic media
  • Gather, research and prepare communications material for internal and external audiences
  • Develop, implement and evaluate communications strategies and programs designed to inform clients, employees and the general public of initiatives and policies of businesses, governments and other organizations
  • Conduct public opinion and attitude surveys to identify the interests and concerns of key groups served by their organization
  • Prepare or oversee preparation of reports, briefs, bibliographies, speeches, presentations, Web sites and press releases
  • Develop and organize workshops, meetings, ceremonies and other events for publicity, fundraising and information purposes
  • Prepare and deliver educational and publicity programs and informational materials to increase awareness of museums, galleries and other tourist attractions
  • Initiate and maintain contact with the media
  • Arrange interviews and news conferences
  • Act as spokesperson for an organization and answer written and oral inquiries
  • Co-ordinate special publicity events and promotions for internal and external audiences
  • Assist in the preparation of brochures, reports, newsletters and other material
  • Represent and act as an agent for talented individuals or individuals with specific occupational expertise
  • Prepare or oversee preparation of sports, literary, performance or other contracts.

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Agent – musicians, sports, entertainment, etc
  • Communications – advisor, consultant, officer, etc
  • Advertising – account manager, specialist, etc
  • Information – officer, coordinator, organizer, etc
  • Press Agent
  • Public Relations – agent, coordinator, practitioner, etc

Supervisors in this unit group supervise and co-ordinate the activities of workers in the fields of accounting, payroll, banking, insurance, and collections. They are employed by banks and other financial institutions, insurance companies, and by other establishments throughout the private and public sectors.

Description of Main Duties

Supervisors in this group perform some or all of the following tasks:

  • Implement efficient working processes and co-ordinate, assign and review the work of clerks engaged in the following duties: administering accounts payable and receivable; processing, verifying and recording financial documents and forms; administering payrolls; processing, verifying and recording insurance claims and forms; and collecting user fees and payments on overdue accounts
  • Examine and verify accuracy of work and authorize routine payments, credits and other transactions
  • Establish work schedules and procedures and co-ordinate activities with other work units or departments
  • Resolve work-related problems and prepare and submit progress and other reports
  • Identify training needs and train workers in job duties and company policies
  • Requisition supplies and materials
  • Ensure smooth operation of computer systems and equipment and arrange for maintenance and repair work
  • May perform the same duties as workers supervised.

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Supervisor, accounting, billing, claims service, payroll, credit clerks, etc
  • Paymaster
  • Accounts Payable Analyst
  • Accounting Section Head

Property administrators perform administrative duties and co-ordinate activities related to the management and rental of investment property and real estate on behalf of property and strata property owners. They are employed by property, real estate and strata services management companies, property development companies and by government.

Description of Main Duties

Property Administrators perform some or all of the following tasks:

  • Negotiate or approve rental or lease of various properties in a portfolio on behalf of property owners and ensure that terms of lease agreement are met
  • Prepare and administer contracts for provision of property services, such as cleaning and maintenance, security services and alarm systems
  • Co-ordinate the implementation of repairs, maintenance and renovations carried out on buildings and monitor progress and cost of work for property owners
  • Compile and maintain records on operating expenses and income, prepare reports and review rents to ensure they are at market value
  • Ensure that trouble calls received from clients or tenants are acted upon
  • Administer damage deposits
  • May hire and supervise rental agents, property clerks, building superintendents or other support staff performing operational, clerical or maintenance duties.

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Property Rental Agent
  • Real Estate Rental Agent
  • Accommodation Officer
  • Residential Property Manager
  • Housing Development Officer

Geoscientists include geologists, geochemists and geophysicists who conduct programs of exploration and research to extend knowledge of the structure, composition and processes of the earth, to locate, identify and extract hydrocarbon, mineral and groundwater resources and to assess and mitigate the effects of development and waste disposal projects on the environment. Oceanographers conduct programs of exploration and research on ocean processes and phenomena, biological, chemical and physical characteristics of oceans, interactions with atmospheric and geological environments and impacts of human activity on oceans and marine ecosystems. Geoscientists are employed by petroleum and mining companies, consulting geology, geophysics and engineering firms and by governments and educational institutions, or they may be self-employed. Oceanographers are employed by governments, educational institutions and private companies engaged in exploration of seafloor deposits and seafarming areas, or they may be self-employed.

Description of Main Duties

Geoscientists perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Conduct theoretical and applied research to extend knowledge of surface and subsurface features of the earth, its history and the operation of physical, chemical and biological systems that control its evolution
  • Plan, direct and participate in geological, geochemical and geophysical field studies, drilling and geological testing programs
  • Plan and conduct seismic, electromagnetic, magnetic, gravimetric, radiometric, radar and other remote sensing programs
  • Plan, direct and participate in analyses of geological, geochemical and geophysical survey data, well logs and other test results, maps, notes and cross sections
  • Develop models and applied software for the analysis and interpretation of data
  • Plan and conduct analytical studies of core samples, drill cuttings and rock samples to identify chemical, mineral, hydrocarbon and biological composition and to assess depositional environments and geological age
  • Assess the size, orientation and composition of mineral ore bodies and hydrocarbon deposits
  • Identify deposits of construction materials and determine their characteristics and suitability for use as concrete aggregates, road fill or for other applications
  • Conduct geological and geophysical studies for regional development and advise in areas such as site selection, waste management and restoration of contaminated sites
  • Recommend the acquisition of lands, exploration and mapping programs and mine development
  • Identify and advise on anticipated natural risks such as slope erosion, landslides, soil instability, subsidence, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions
  • May supervise and co-ordinate well drilling, completion and work-overs and mining activities.

Oceanographers perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Conduct theoretical and applied oceanographic research programs and expeditions to extend knowledge of the physical, chemical and biological properties and functioning of oceans
  • Plan, direct and participate in sampling and analysis of seawater, plankton, fish, sediments and rocks
  • Study physical properties of oceans to develop models, charts and computer simulations of ocean conditions, such as tides, waves, currents and sediment transport
  • Explore ocean floor and submarine geological structures, conduct seismic surveys and study formation of ocean basins and other structures to map ocean floor, coastal erosion, sediment accumulation and areas for offshore oil and gas exploration
  • Plan and conduct investigations on ocean chemical properties and processes, ocean floor and marine atmosphere and undersea volcanoes to study impacts of environmental changes
  • Study marine life and interaction with physical and chemical environments to assess impacts of pollutants on marine ecology and to develop ecologically-based methods of seafarming.

*Geologists may specialize in fields such as coal geology, environmental geology, geochronology, hydrogeology, mineral deposits or mining, petroleum geology, stratigraphy, tectonics, volcanology or in other fields.Geochemists may specialize in analytical geochemistry, hydrogeochemistry, mineral or petroleum geochemistry or in other fields.Geophysicists may specialize in areas, such as petroleum geology, earth physics, geodesy, geoelectromagnetism, seismology or in other fields.Oceanographers may specialize in biological, chemical, geological or physical oceanography, or in other fields related to the study of oceans

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Geologist
  • Mineralogist
  • Paleontologist
  • Well site coordinator
  • Volcanologist

Civil engineers plan, design, develop and manage projects for the construction or repair of buildings, earth structures, powerhouses, roads, airports, railways, rapid transit facilities, bridges, tunnels, canals, dams, ports and coastal installations and systems related to highway and transportation services, water distribution and sanitation. Civil engineers may also specialize in foundation analysis, building and structural inspection, surveying, geomatics and municipal planning. Civil engineers are employed by engineering consulting companies, in all levels of government, by construction firms and in many other industries, or they may be self-employed.

Description of Main Duties

Civil Engineers perform some or all of the following tasks:

  • Confer with clients and other members of the engineering team and conduct research to determine project requirements
  • Plan and design major civil projects such as buildings, roads, bridges, dams, water and waste management systems and structural steel fabrications
  • Develop construction specifications and procedures
  • Evaluate and recommend appropriate building and construction materials
  • Interpret, review and approve survey and civil design work
  • Conduct field services for civil works
  • Ensure construction plans meet guidelines and specifications of building codes and other regulations
  • Establish and monitor construction work schedules
  • Conduct feasibility studies, economic analyses, municipal and regional traffic studies, environmental impact studies or other investigations
  • Monitor air, water and soil quality and develop procedures to clean up contaminated sites
  • Conduct technical analyses of survey and field data for development of topographic, soil, hydrological or other information and prepare reports
  • Act as project or site supervisor for land survey or construction work
  • Prepare contract documents and review and evaluate tenders for construction projects
  • Supervise technicians, technologists and other engineers and review and approve designs, calculations and cost estimates.

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Civil Engineer
  • Hydraulics Engineer
  • Construction Engineer
  • Structural Design Engineer
  • Water Systems Engineer

Mechanical engineers research, design and develop machinery and systems for heating, ventilating and air conditioning, power generation, transportation, processing and manufacturing. They also perform duties related to the evaluation, installation, operation and maintenance of mechanical systems. Mechanical engineers are employed by consulting firms, by power-generating utilities and in a wide range of manufacturing, processing and transportation industries, or they may be self-employed.

Description of Main Duties

Mechanical Engineers perform some or all of the following tasks:

  • Conduct research into the feasibility, design, operation and performance of mechanisms, components and systems
  • Plan and manage projects, and prepare material, cost and timing estimates, reports and design specifications for machinery and systems
  • Design power plants, machines, components, tools, fixtures and equipment
  • Analyze dynamics and vibrations of mechanical systems and structures
  • Supervise and inspect the installation, modification and commissioning of mechanical systems at construction sites or in industrial facilities
  • Develop maintenance standards, schedules and programs and provide guidance to industrial maintenance crews
  • Investigate mechanical failures or unexpected maintenance problems
  • Prepare contract documents and evaluate tenders for industrial construction or maintenance
  • Supervise technicians, technologists and other engineers and review and approve designs, calculations and cost estimates.

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Mechanical Engineer
  • Acoustics Engineer
  • Power Generation Engineer
  • Nuclear Engineer
  • Tool Engineer

Electrical and electronics engineers design, plan, research, evaluate and test electrical and electronic equipment and systems. They are employed by electrical utilities, communications companies, manufacturers of electrical and electronic equipment, consulting firms, and by a wide range of manufacturing, processing and transportation industries and government.

Description of Main Duties

Electrical Engineers perform some or all of the following tasks:

  • Conduct research into the feasibility, design, operation and performance of electrical generation and distribution networks, electrical machinery and components and electronic communications, instrumentation and control systems, equipment, and components
  • Prepare material cost and timing estimates, reports and design specifications for electrical and electronic systems and equipment
  • Design electrical and electronic circuits, components, systems and equipment
  • Conduct micro or nanodevices simulations, characterization, process modeling and integration in the development of new electronic devices and products
  • Supervise and inspect the installation, modification, testing and operation of electrical and electronic systems and equipment
  • Develop maintenance and operating standards for electrical and electronic systems and equipment
  • Investigate electrical or electronic failures
  • Prepare contract documents and evaluate tenders for construction or maintenance
  • Supervise technicians, technologists, programmers, analysts and other engineers.

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Electrical Engineer
  • Antenna Engineer
  • Radio and Television Broadcasting Systems Engineer
  • Signal Engineer
  • Meter Engineer

Petroleum engineers conduct studies for the exploration, development and extraction of oil and gas deposits; and plan, design, develop and supervise projects for the drilling, completion, testing and re-working of oil and gas wells. They are employed by petroleum producing companies, consulting companies, well logging or testing companies, government, and research and educational institutions.

Description of Main Duties

Petroleum Engineers perform some or all of the following tasks:

  • Conduct feasibility assessment studies for developing new oil and gas fields
  • Direct and monitor oil and gas drilling operations
  • Develop drilling programs, select sites and specify drilling fluids, bit selection, drill stem testing procedures and equipment
  • Direct and monitor the completion and evaluation of wells, well testing and well surveys
  • Design and select artificial lift machinery, and well and surface production equipment and systems, and specify programs for corrosion control and oil or gas treatment
  • Develop specifications for and monitor and supervise well modification and stimulation programs to maximize oil and gas recovery
  • Analyze reservoir rock and fluid data to design optimum recovery methods and to predict reservoir performance and reserves
  • Monitor and forecast oil and gas reservoir performance and recommend oil recovery techniques which extend the economic life of wells
  • Design, develop and co-ordinate the installation, maintenance and operation of subsea well-head and production equipment.

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Petroleum Engineer
  • Drilling and Recovery Engineer
  • Offshore Drilling Engineer
  • Oil and Gas Drilling Engineer
  • Subsea Engineer
  • Well Logging Engineer

Information systems analysts and consultants analyze systems requirements, develop and implement information systems development plans, policies and procedures, and provide advice on a wide range of information systems issues. They are employed in information technology consulting firms and in information technology units throughout the private and public sectors, or they may be self-employed.

Description of Main Duties

Information Systems Analysts and Data Administrators perform some or all of the following tasks:

  • Information systems business analysts and consultants confer with clients to identify and document requirements, conduct business and technical studies, design, develop, integrate and implement information systems business solutions, and provide advice on information systems strategy, policy, management, security and service delivery.
  • Systems security analysts confer with clients to identify and document requirements, assess physical and technical security risks to data, software and hardware, and develop policies, procedures and contingency plans to minimize the effects of security breaches.
  • Information systems quality assurance analysts develop and implement policies and procedures throughout the software development life cycle to maximize the efficiency, effectiveness and overall quality of software products and information systems.
  • Systems auditors conduct independent third-party reviews to assess quality assurance practices, software products and information systems.

Sample Occupation Titles

  • IT Consultant
  • Analyst – computer, computer systems, information systems, etc
  • Information Systems – security analyst, analyst, quality assurance analyst, etc
  • Systems auditor
  • Systems specialist

Database analysts design, develop and administer data management solutions using database management software. Data administrators develop and implement data administration policy, standards and models. They are employed in information technology consulting firms and in information technology units throughout the private and public sectors.

Description of Main Duties

Database analysts perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Collect and document user requirements
  • Design and develop database architecture for information systems projects
  • Design, construct, modify, integrate, implement and test data models and database management systems
  • Conduct research and provide advice to other informatics professionals regarding the selection, application and implementation of database management tools
  • Operate database management systems to analyze data and perform data mining analysis.
  • May lead, co-ordinate or supervise other workers in this group.

Data administrators perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Develop and implement data administration policy, standards and models
  • Research and document data requirements, data collection and administration policy, data access rules and security
  • Develop policies and procedures for network and/or Internet database access and usage and for the backup and recovery of data
  • Conduct research and provide advice to other information systems professionals regarding the collection, availability, security and suitability of data
  • Write scripts related to stored procedures and triggers
  • May lead and co-ordinate teams of data administrators in the development and implementation of data policies, standards and models.

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Data – administrator, custodian, miner, etc
  • Database – analyst, architect, designer, administrator, etc
  • Electronic Data Processing Analyst
  • Technical Architect

Software engineers and designers research, design, evaluate, integrate and maintain software applications, technical environments, operating systems, embedded software, information warehouses and telecommunications software. They are employed in information technology consulting firms, information technology research and development firms, and information technology units throughout the private and public sectors, or they may be self-employed.

Description of Main Duties

Software Engineers and Designers perform some or all of the following tasks:

  • Collect and document users' requirements and develop logical and physical specifications
  • Research, evaluate and synthesize technical information to design, develop and test computer-based systems
  • Develop data, process and network models to optimize architecture and to evaluate the performance and reliability of designs
  • Plan, design and co-ordinate the development, installation, integration and operation of computer-based systems
  • Assess, test, troubleshoot, document, upgrade and develop maintenance procedures for operating systems, communications environments and applications software
  • May lead and co-ordinate teams of information systems professionals in the development of software and integrated information systems, process control software and other embedded software control systems.

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Software – designer, engineer, architect, etc
  • Artificial Intelligence Designer
  • Software Test Engineer

Computer programmers write, modify, integrate and test computer code for microcomputer and mainframe software applications, data processing applications, operating systems-level software and communications software. Interactive media developers write, modify, integrate and test computer code for Internet applications, computer-based training software, computer games, film, video and other interactive media. They are employed in computer software development firms, information technology consulting firms, and in information technology units throughout the private and public sectors.

Description of Main Duties

Computer programmers perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Write, modify, integrate and test software code
  • Maintain existing computer programs by making modifications as required
  • Identify and communicate technical problems, processes and solutions
  • Prepare reports, manuals and other documentation on the status, operation and maintenance of software
  • Assist in the collection and documentation of user requirements
  • Assist in the development of logical and physical specifications
  • May lead and co-ordinate teams of computer programmers
  • May research and evaluate a variety of software products.

Interactive media developers perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Program animation software to predefined specifications for interactive CDs, DVDs, video game cartridges and Internet-based applications
  • Program special effects software for film and video applications
  • Write, modify, integrate and test software code for e-commerce and other Internet applications
  • Assist in the collection and documentation of user requirements
  • Assist in the development of logical and physical specifications
  • May lead and co-ordinate teams of interactive media developers
  • May research and evaluate a variety of interactive media software products.

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Programmer – web, animation, special effects, systems, etc
  • E-Commerce Developer
  • Multimedia Developer
  • Scientific Programmer

Mechanical engineering technologists and technicians provide technical support and services or may work independently in mechanical engineering fields such as the design, development, maintenance and testing of machines, components, tools, heating and ventilating systems, power generation and power conversion plants, manufacturing plants and equipment. They are employed by consulting engineering, manufacturing and processing companies, institutions and government departments.

Description of Main Duties

Mechanical engineering technologists perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Prepare and interpret conventional and computer-assisted design (CAD) engineering designs, drawings, and specifications for machines and components, power transmission systems, process piping, heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems
  • Prepare cost and material estimates, project schedules and reports
  • Conduct tests and analyses of machines, components and materials to determine their performance, strength, response to stress and other characteristics
  • Design moulds, tools, dies, jigs and fixtures for use in manufacturing processes
  • Inspect mechanical installations and construction
  • Prepare contract and tender documents
  • Supervise, monitor and inspect mechanical installations and construction projects
  • Prepare standards and schedules and supervise mechanical maintenance programs or operations of mechanical plants.

Mechanical engineering technicians perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Assist in preparing conventional and computer-assisted design (CAD) engineering designs, drawings and specifications
  • Carry out a limited range of mechanical tests and analyses of machines, components and materials
  • Assist in the design of moulds, tools, dies, jigs and fixtures for use in manufacturing processes
  • Assist in inspection of mechanical installations and construction projects
  • Participate in the installation, repair and maintenance of machinery and equipment.

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Mechanical Engineering Technician
  • Aerospace Engineering Technician
  • Mould Designer
  • HVAC Specialist
  • Tool and Die Designer

Construction estimators analyze costs of and prepare estimates on civil engineering, architectural, structural, electrical and mechanical construction projects. They are employed by residential, commercial and industrial construction companies and major electrical, mechanical and trade contractors, or they may be self-employed.

Description of Main Duties

Construction Estimators perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Prepare estimates of probable costs of materials, labour and equipment for construction projects based on contract bids, quotations, schematic drawings and specifications
  • Advise on tendering procedures, examine and analyze tenders, recommend tender awards and conduct negotiations
  • Establish and maintain tendering process and set up cost monitoring and reporting systems and procedures
  • Prepare cost and expenditure statements and forecasts at regular intervals for the duration of a project
  • Prepare and maintain a directory of suppliers, contractors and subcontractors
  • Liaise, consult and communicate with engineers, architects, owners, contractors and subcontractors, and prepare economic feasibility studies on changes and adjustments to cost estimates
  • Manage and co-ordinate construction projects and prepare construction progress schedules.

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Estimator – construction, building construction, etc
  • Mechanical Estimator
  • Junior Estimator
  • Quantity Surveyor

Electrical and electronics engineering technologists and technicians may work independently or provide technical support and services in the design, development, testing, production and operation of electrical and electronic equipment and systems. They are employed by electrical utilities, communications companies, manufacturers of electrical and electronic equipment, consulting firms, and in governments and a wide range of manufacturing, processing and transportation industries.

Description of Main Duties

Electrical and electronics engineering technologists perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Design, develop and test power equipment and systems, industrial process control systems, telecommunication, broadcast, recording and audiovisual systems, micro-electronic systems and circuits, computers, computer systems and networks, and computer software
  • Supervise the building and testing of prototypes according to general instructions and established standards
  • Conduct or supervise the installation, commissioning, and operation of electrical and electronic equipment and systems other than aircraft electronics or instruments
  • Carry out applied research in fields of electrical and electronic engineering and physics under the direction of scientists or engineers
  • Set up and operate specialized and standard test equipment to diagnose, test and analyze the performance of electrical and electronic components, assemblies and systems
  • Write specifications, schedules and technical reports and control schedules and budgets.

Electrical and electronics engineering technicians perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Assist in the design, development and testing of electrical and electronic components, equipment, and systems
  • Assist in inspection, testing, adjusting and evaluation of incoming electrical, electro-mechanical and electronic components and assemblies to ensure conformance with product specifications and tolerances
  • Conduct life tests (burn-ins) on assemblies and record and analyze results
  • Assist in building and testing prototypes to specifications
  • Carry out a limited range of technical functions in support of research in electrical and electronic engineering and physics
  • Install, operate and maintain electrical and electronic equipment and systems
  • Calibrate electrical or electronic equipment and instruments according to technical manuals and written instructions
  • Collect and compile operational or experimental data and assist in the preparation of estimates, schedules, budgets, specifications and reports.

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Communications Technologist
  • Electronics – technician, manufacturing technician, etc
  • Design Technologist
  • Control Systems Tester
  • Production Support Technician

Industrial instrument technicians and mechanics repair, maintain, calibrate, adjust, and install industrial measuring and controlling instrumentation. They are employed by pulp and paper processing companies, nuclear and hydro power generating companies, mining, petrochemical and natural gas companies, industrial instrument and other manufacturing companies, and by industrial instrument servicing establishments.

Description of Main Duties

Individuals in this group perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Consult manufacturer's manuals, circuit diagrams and blueprints to determine tests and maintenance procedures for instruments used for measuring and controlling flow, level, pressure, temperature, chemical composition and other variables in manufacturing and processing
  • Inspect and test operation of instruments and systems to diagnose faults using pneumatic, electrical and electronic testing devices and precision measuring instruments
  • Repair and adjust system components, such as sensors, transmitters and programmable logic controllers, or remove and replace defective parts
  • Calibrate components and instruments according to manufacturers' specifications
  • Perform scheduled preventive maintenance work and complete test and maintenance reports
  • Install control and measurement instruments on existing and new plant equipment and processes
  • Consult with and advise process operators.

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Industrial Instrument Mechanic
  • Industrial Instrument Technician
  • Heavy Water Plant Control Technician
  • Nucleonic Controller Repairer

Inspectors in this unit group evaluate and monitor health and safety hazards and develop strategies to control risks in the workplace. They inspect restaurants, public facilities, industrial establishments, municipal water systems and other workplaces to ensure compliance with government regulations regarding sanitation, pollution control, the handling and storage of hazardous substances and workplace safety. They are employed throughout the private and public sectors.

Description of Main Duties

Individuals in this group perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Inspect the sanitary conditions of restaurants, hotels, schools, hospitals and other public facilities or institutions
  • Conduct surveys and monitoring programs of the natural environment to identify sources of pollution
  • Collect samples of water for analysis; measure physical, biological and chemical workplace hazards; and conduct safety and environmental audits
  • Investigate health and safety related complaints, spills of hazardous chemicals, outbreaks of diseases or poisonings and workplace accidents
  • Inspect workplaces to ensure that equipment, materials and production processes do not present a safety or health hazard to employees or to the general public
  • Develop, implement and evaluate health and safety programs and strategies
  • Initiate enforcement procedures to fine or to close an establishment contravening municipal, provincial or federal regulations
  • Provide consultation and deliver training programs to employers, employees and the general public on issues of public health, environmental protection or workplace safety.

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Environmental Health and Safety Technologist
  • Inspector – industrial waste control, environmental health, etc
  • Health and Safety Technician
  • Food Inspector
  • Labour Standards Officer
  • Occupational Safety Officer

Computer network technicians establish, operate, maintain and co-ordinate the use of local and wide area networks (LANs and WANs), mainframe networks, hardware, software and related computer equipment. They set up and maintain Internet and intranet Web sites and Web-server hardware and software, and monitor and optimize network connectivity and performance. They are employed in information technology units throughout the private and public sectors. Supervisors of computer network technicians are included in this unit group.

Description of Main Duties

Individuals in this group perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Maintain, troubleshoot and administer the use of local area networks (LANs), wide area networks (WANs), mainframe networks, computer workstations, connections to the Internet and peripheral equipment
  • Evaluate and install computer hardware, networking software, operating system software and software applications
  • Operate master consoles to monitor the performance of computer systems and networks and to co-ordinate access and use of computer networks
  • Provide problem-solving services to network users
  • Install, maintain, troubleshoot and upgrade Web-server hardware and software
  • Implement network traffic and security monitoring software, and optimize server performance
  • Perform routine network start up and close down and maintain control records
  • Perform data backups and disaster recovery operations
  • Conduct tests and perform security and quality controls
  • Control and monitor e-mail use, Web navigation, and installed software
  • Perform shell scripting or other basic scripting tasks
  • May supervise other workers in this group.

Sample Occupation Titles

  • LAN Administrator
  • Network Support Analyst
  • WAN Administrator
  • Computer Network Technician
  • Network Operator

Nursing co-ordinators and supervisors co-ordinate and supervise the activities of registered nurses, registered psychiatric nurses, licensed practical nurses and other nursing personnel in the provision of patient care. They are employed in health care institutions such as hospitals, clinics and nursing homes, and in nursing agencies.

Description of Main Duties

Individuals in this group perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Supervise registered nurses, licensed practical nurses and other nursing personnel
  • Evaluate patients' needs and ensure that required nursing care is delivered
  • Set up and co-ordinate nursing services in conjunction with other health services
  • Ensure quality nursing care is provided and appropriate administrative procedures are followed
  • Assist in the establishment of unit policies and procedures
  • Administer nursing unit budget and ensure that supplies and equipment are available
  • Assist in the selection, evaluation and professional development of nursing personnel
  • Collaborate on research projects related to nursing and medical care and multidisciplinary services
  • May provide direct patient care.

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Nursing Coordinator
  • Head Nurse
  • Nursing Ward Supervisor
  • Surgical Coordinator, Nursing

This unit group includes registered nurses, registered psychiatric nurses and graduates of a nursing program who are awaiting registration (graduate nurses). They provide direct nursing care to patients, deliver health education programs and provide consultative services regarding issues relevant to the practice of nursing. They are employed in a variety of settings including hospitals, nursing homes, extended care facilities, rehabilitation centres, doctors' offices, clinics, community agencies, companies and private homes, or they may be self-employed.

Description of Main Duties

Individuals in this group perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Assess patients to identify appropriate nursing interventions
  • Collaborate with members of an interdisciplinary health team to plan, implement, co-ordinate and evaluate patient care in consultation with patients and their families
  • Administer medications and treatments as prescribed by a physician or according to established policies and protocols
  • Monitor, assess, address, document and report symptoms and changes in patients' conditions
  • Operate or monitor medical apparatus or equipment
  • Assist in surgery and other medical procedures
  • May supervise licensed practical nurses and other nursing staff
  • May develop and implement discharge planning process on admission of patients
  • May teach and counsel patients and their families on health-related issues in collaboration with other health care providers.
  • Occupational health nurses develop and implement employee health education programs and provide registered nursing care in private businesses and industry.
  • Community health nurses provide health education and registered nursing care in public health units and through home visits, manage complex home care cases, participate in community needs assessment and program development, conduct disease screening and deliver immunization programs.
  • Psychiatric nurses provide nursing care, supportive counselling and life skills programming to patients in psychiatric hospitals, mental health clinics, long-term care facilities and community-based settings.
  • Nursing consultants provide consultative services to institutes, associations and health care organizations regarding issues and concerns relevant to the nursing profession and nursing practice.
  • Nursing researchers engaged in research activities related to nursing are self-employed or are employed by hospitals, public and private organizations and governments.
  • Clinical nurses provide leadership, advice and counsel on the provision of research-based care for specific patient groups within the care of particular health care organizations.

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Clinical Nurse
  • Bedside Nurse
  • Consultant Nurse
  • ICU Nurse
  • Pediatric Nurse

This unit group includes specialist physicians in clinical medicine, in laboratory medicine and in surgery. Specialists in clinical medicine diagnose and treat diseases and physiological or psychiatric disorders and act as consultants to other physicians. Specialists in laboratory medicine study the nature, cause and development of diseases in humans. Specialists in surgery perform and supervise surgical procedures. Specialists in clinical medicine usually work in private practice or in a hospital while those in laboratory medicine and in surgery usually work in hospitals. Residents in training to become specialist physicians are included in this unit group.

Description of Main Duties

Specialists in clinical medicine perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Diagnose and treat diseases and physiological or psychiatric disorders
  • Order laboratory tests, X-rays and other diagnostic procedures
  • Prescribe medication and treatment and refer patients for surgery
  • Act as consultants to other physicians
  • May conduct medical research.

Specialists in laboratory medicine perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Study the nature, cause and development of diseases in humans and the structural and functional changes caused by diseases
  • Conduct microscopic and chemical analyses of laboratory samples and specimens
  • Supervise laboratory activities
  • Act as consultants to other physicians.

Specialists in surgery perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Assess patients' diseases or disorders to determine appropriate surgical procedures
  • Perform and supervise surgical procedures to correct physical abnormalities and deficiencies and repair injuries
  • Act as consultants to other physicians.

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Pathologist
  • Obstetrician
  • Orthopedist
  • Physiatrist
  • Neurologist
  • Urologist
  • Vasular Surgeon
  • Opthamologist
  • Oncologist

General practitioners and family physicians diagnose and treat the diseases, physiological disorders and injuries of patients. They provide primary contact and continuous care toward the management of patients' health. They usually work in private practice, including group or team practices, hospitals and clinics. Residents in training to be general practitioners and family physicians are included in this unit group.

Description of Main Duties

Individuals in this group perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Examine patients and take their histories, order laboratory tests, X-rays and other diagnostic procedures and consult with other medical practitioners to evaluate patients' physical and mental health
  • Prescribe and administer medications and treatments
  • Perform and assist in routine surgery
  • Provide emergency care
  • Provide acute care management
  • Vaccinate patients to prevent and treat diseases
  • Deliver babies and provide pre-natal and post-natal care
  • Advise patients and their families on health care including health promotion, disease, illness and accident prevention
  • Provide counselling and support to patients and their families on a wide range of health and lifestyle issues
  • Perform patient advocacy role
  • Co-ordinate or manage primary patient care
  • Provide continuous care to patients
  • Supervise home care services
  • Report births, deaths, and contagious and other diseases to governmental

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Physician
  • Medical Doctor
  • General Practice Intern
  • Medical Officer of Health

Dietitians and nutritionists plan, implement and oversee nutrition and food service programs. They are employed in a variety of settings including hospitals, home health-care agencies and extended care facilities, community health centres, the food and beverage industry, the pharmaceutical industry, educational institutions, and government and sports organizations, or they may work as private consultants.

Description of Main Duties

Dietitians and nutritionists perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Develop, administer and supervise nutrition and food preparation and service programs in hospitals, nursing homes, schools, company cafeterias or similar settings
  • Evaluate nutritional status of individuals and provide nutrition guidance and consulting to health professionals, individuals, dietetic interns, community groups, government and the media
  • Aid in the prevention and/or treatment of inadequate nutrition
  • Plan, evaluate and conduct nutrition education programs and develop educational materials for various audiences
  • Practice on an individual basis or as a member of an interdisciplinary team to determine nutritional needs of patients and to plan, implement and evaluate normal and therapeutic menus to maintain and enhance general health
  • Analyze current scientific nutritional studies, conduct research and evaluate program effectiveness to improve the nutritional value, taste, appearance and preparation of food
  • Work within industry in the development, testing and evaluation, and marketing of food and nutrition products or as a company representative supplying product related information to health professionals
  • Confer with other health professionals, community groups, government and the media to provide consultation and advice in areas of nutrition interpretation, intervention and policy
  • Supervise training of dietetic interns.

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Dietician
  • Nutrition and Dietetics Researcher
  • Nutritionist
  • Nutrition Specialist
  • Therapeutic Dietician

Audiologists diagnose, evaluate and treat individuals with peripheral and central hearing loss, tinnitus and balance problems. Speech-language pathologists diagnose, assess and treat human communication disorders including speech, fluency, language, voice and swallowing disorders. Audiologists and speech-language pathologists are employed in hospitals, community and public health centres, extended care facilities, day clinics, rehabilitation centres and educational institutions, or may work in private practice. Audiologists and speech-language pathologists who are supervisors are included in this unit group.

Description of Main Duties

Audiologists perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Develop and administer audiometric tests and examinations using specialized instruments and electronic equipment to diagnose and evaluate the degree and type of patients' hearing impairment
  • Plan and implement habilitation/rehabilitation programs for patients, including selection, fitting and adjustment of amplification devices, such as hearing aids, and teaching speech (lip) reading
  • Provide information to patients and families regarding the nature, extent, impact and implications of hearing loss and treatment
  • Establish personalized care plans working as a member of an interdisciplinary team
  • Conduct research related to hearing and hearing disorders
  • May instruct and supervise audiometric technicians, students and other health care personnel.

Speech-language pathologists perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Administer tests and examinations and observe patients to diagnose and evaluate speech, voice, resonance, language, cognitive-linguistic and swallowing disorders
  • Develop, plan and implement remedial programs to correct speech, voice, language, resonance, cognitive-linguistic and swallowing disorders
  • Establish group and personalized care plans working as a member of an interdisciplinary team
  • Provide advice and educational services to patients and families regarding communication and swallowing disorders
  • Conduct research on speech and other communication disorders and on the development and design of diagnostic procedures and devices
  • May instruct and supervise communicative disorders assistants, students and other health care personnel.

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Audiologist – research, clinician, educational, dispensing, etc
  • Logopedist
  • Speech-Language Pathologist-  clinician, researcher, etc
  • Speech Therapist
  • Human Communication Disorders Specialist

Physiotherapists assess patients and plan and carry out individually designed treatment programs to maintain, improve or restore physical functioning, alleviate pain and prevent physical dysfunction in patients. Physiotherapists are employed in hospitals, clinics, industry, sports organizations, rehabilitation centres and extended care facilities, or they may work in private practice.

Description of Main Duties

Physiotherapists perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Assess patients' physical abilities through evaluative procedures such as functional ability tests
  • Establish treatment goals with patients based on physical diagnoses
  • Plan and implement programs of physiotherapy including therapeutic exercise, manipulations, massage, education, the use of electro-therapeutic and other mechanical equipment and hydro-therapy
  • Evaluate effectiveness of treatment plans and modify accordingly
  • Communicate with referring physician and other healthcare professionals regarding patients' problems, needs and progress
  • Maintain clinical and statistical records and confer with other health care professionals
  • Develop and implement health promotion programs for patients, staff and the community
  • May conduct research in physiotherapy
  • May provide consulting or education services.

Sample Occupational Titles

  • Physical Therapist – clinical specialist, clinical coordinator, research, supervisor, etc
  • Registered Physical Therapist
  • Physical Therapy Clinical Coordinator
  • Consultant Physical Therapist

Occupational therapists develop individual and group programs with people affected by illness, injury, developmental disorders, emotional or psychological problems and ageing to maintain, restore or increase their ability to care for themselves and to engage in work, school or leisure. They also develop and implement health promotion programs with individuals, community groups and employers. They are employed in health care facilities, in schools, and by private and social services agencies, or they may be self-employed.

Description of Main Duties

Occupational therapists perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Analyse clients' capabilities and expectations related to life activities through observation, interviews and formal assessments
  • Develop intervention programs to address clients' needs related to self-care, work and leisure activities
  • Maintain clients' records
  • Establish personalized care plans working as a member of an interdisciplinary team
  • Consult and advise on health promotion programs to prevent disabilities and to maximize independent function in all activities of life
  • May supervise support personnel and students and provide training.

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Occupational Therapist – case manager, community, home care, research, etc
  • Rehabilitation Consultant – Occupational Therapy
  • Vocational Evaluator Occupational Therapist

Respiratory therapists assist physicians in the diagnosis, treatment and care of patients with respiratory and cardiopulmonary disorders. Clinical perfusionists provide technical support to patients undergoing cardiac surgery and patients requiring cardio-respiratory support. Cardiopulmonary technologists assist physicians in the technical aspects of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease. Respiratory therapists are employed in hospitals, extended care facilities, public health centres and respiratory home care companies. Clinical perfusionists and cardiopulmonary technologists are primarily employed in hospitals. Respiratory therapists, clinical perfusionists and cardiopulmonary technologists who are supervisors or instructors are included in this unit group.

Description of Main Duties

Respiratory therapists perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Perform diagnostic tests, such as arterial blood gas analysis and cardiopulmonary functions tests
  • Operate and monitor respiratory equipment to administer treatments such as oxygen, oxygen-air mixtures, humidified air or medications
  • Operate, monitor, maintain and test a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic equipment
  • Assess patients and perform or assist with interventions such as airway maintenance, line insertions, inductions and intubations
  • Perform artificial respiration and external cardiac massage
  • Assist with transport of high-risk patients
  • Supervise and train students and other respiratory therapists
  • Participate in home care programs for chronic respiratory patients and provide patient and family education
  • Participate in research related to cardiac and pulmonary disorders.

Clinical perfusionists perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Assemble, maintain and operate extracorporeal circulation equipment, intra-aortic balloon pumps and other heart assist devices to support or temporarily replace patients' cardiopulmonary functions during open-heart surgery
  • Administer blood products, drugs and other substances through heart-lung machines and other devices as directed by cardiac surgeons and anaesthetists to maintain adequate flow of oxygenated blood to all organs of the body
  • Monitor vital signs to support and maintain patients' physiological functions and metabolic needs during cardiopulmonary surgery
  • Participate in routine maintenance, calibration and inspection of all perfusion related equipment
  • Supervise and train student clinical perfusionists and other clinical perfusionists.

Cardiopulmonary technologists perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Perform diagnostic tests, such as pulmonary function and asthma stress, or assist physicians with cardiac and cardiopulmonary stress tests and bronchoscopies
  • Determine patients' blood characteristics such as activated clotting time and oxygen saturation
  • Operate, monitor, maintain, calibrate and test diagnostic and therapeutic equipment
  • Monitor patients and advise physician of any changes in patients' condition
  • Prepare medications and administer inhaler and other treatments under supervision of cardiologist
  • Provide information and care for patients during tests
  • Assist with the preparation of cardiac catheterization room, prepare specialized catheters and assist cardiologists during catheterization
  • Perform analysis, programming and monitoring of implanted devices such as pacemakers and defibrillators during surgery
  • Supervise and train students and other cardiopulmonary technologists
  • Provide technical support for research.

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Anesthesia Technologist
  • Cardiovascular Perfusion – instructor, supervisor, technologist, chief
  • Clinical Instructor – cardiovascular perfusion, clinical perfusion, respiratory therapy, etc
  • Extracorporal Technologist
  • Respiratory – technician, technologist, therapist, therapy supervisor, etc
  • Technologist – inhalation, perfusion, pulmonary function, etc

This unit group includes technologists who operate radiographic and radiation therapy equipment to administer radiation treatment and produce images of body structures for the diagnosis and treatment of injury and disease. They are employed in hospitals, cancer treatment centres, clinics, radiological laboratories, colleges and universities. Medical radiation technologists who are supervisors or instructors are included in this unit group.

Description of Job Duties

Radiological technologists perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Operate X-ray, radiographic and fluoroscopic equipment, computerized tomography (CT) scanners, mammography units and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners to produce radiographs or anatomic images of the human body for the diagnosis by radiologists of disease or injury
  • Record and process patient data
  • Perform basic verification and quality control checks on radiographic and film processing equipment
  • Provide appropriate care and monitoring of the patient during the radiographic examination
  • Explain procedures, position patient and equipment and apply radiation protection measures
  • May train and supervise student radiographers or supervise other radiological technologists.

Nuclear medicine technologists perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Prepare and administer radiopharmaceuticals, such as radionuclides and other tracer materials to patients or to biological samples
  • Operate radiation detection equipment, such as gamma cameras, scanners, scintillation counters, tomodensitometers and ionization chambers, to acquire data for use by nuclear medicine physicians in the diagnosis of disease
  • Perform diagnostic procedures using radioactive materials on biological specimens, such as blood, urine and faeces
  • Record and process results of procedures
  • Check equipment to ensure proper operation
  • Provide appropriate care and monitoring of the patient during the examination
  • Apply radiation protection measures
  • May train and supervise student nuclear medicine technologists or supervise other nuclear medicine technologists.

Radiation therapists perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Operate linear accelerators, cobalt 60, X-ray and other radiation therapy equipment to administer radiation treatment prescribed by radiation oncologists
  • Check radiation therapy equipment to ensure proper operation
  • Assist radiation oncologists and clinical physicists with preparation of radiation treatment plan
  • Assist in the preparation of sealed radioactive materials such as cobalt, radium, cesium and isotopes and the construction of devices such as plaster casts and acrylic moulds to assist with administration of radiation treatment
  • Provide appropriate care and monitoring of the patient's physical and psychological well-being during the entire course of treatment
  • Explain procedures and side effects of radiation
  • May train and supervise student radiotherapy technologists or supervise other radiotherapy technologists.

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Clinical Coordinator – radiation therapy, nuclear medicine, radiography, etc
  • Mammography technician
  • MRI and NMRI technologist
  • Nuclear Medicine – technologist, supervisor, coordinator, director, technician, etc
  • Radiation – oncology, therapy, technology, etc
  • X-Ray technician

Medical sonographers operate ultrasound equipment to produce and record images of various parts of the body to aid physicians in monitoring pregnancies and in diagnosing cardiac, ophthalmic, vascular and other medical disorders. They are employed in clinics and hospitals. Medical sonographers who are supervisors or instructors are included in this unit group.

Description of Main Duties

Medical sonographers perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Operate ultrasound imaging equipment that transmits high frequency sound pulses through the body to produce images of those parts of the body requiring examination
  • Monitor examination by viewing images on video screen, to evaluate quality and consistency of diagnostic images, and make adjustments to equipment, as required
  • Record, store and process scanned images by using camera unit connected to ultrasound equipment
  • Observe and care for patients throughout examinations to ensure patient safety and comfort
  • Prepare examination reports for physicians to aid in the monitoring of pregnancies and the diagnosis of cardiac, abdominal, ophthalmic, vascular and other disorders
  • Perform quality control checks on ultrasound equipment to ensure proper operation and perform minor repairs and adjustments as required
  • May supervise and train student and other medical sonographers.

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Cardiac – sonographer, ultrasound technician, ultrasound technologist
  • Technician – diagnostic echography, diagnostic ultrasound, etc
  • Technologist – echography, ultrasound, ultrasonography, etc

Licensed practical nurses provide nursing care usually under the direction of medical practitioners, registered nurses or other health team members. They are employed in hospitals, nursing homes, extended care facilities, rehabilitation centres, doctors' offices, clinics, companies, private homes and community health centres. Operating room technicians are included in this unit group.

Description of Main Duties

Licensed practical nurses perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Provide nursing services, within defined scope of practice, to patients based on patient assessment and care planning procedures
  • Perform nursing interventions such as taking vital signs, applying aseptic techniques including sterile dressing, ensuring infection control, monitoring nutritional intake and conducting specimen collection
  • Administer medication and observe and document therapeutic effects
  • Provide pre-operative and post-operative personal and comfort care
  • Monitor established respiratory therapy and intravenous therapy
  • Monitor patients' progress, evaluate effectiveness of nursing interventions and consult with appropriate members of healthcare team
  • Provide safety and health education to individuals and their families.

Operating room technicians perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Prepare patients for surgery by washing, shaving and sterilizing the patients' operative areas
  • Assist in surgery by laying out instruments, setting up equipment, assisting surgical teams with gowns and gloves and passing instruments to surgeons
  • Clean and sterilize the operating room and instruments

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Certified Nursing Assistant (CAN)
  • Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN)
  • Registered Practical Nurse (RPN)
  • Registered Nursing Assistant (RNA)
  • Operating Room Technician

This unit group includes workers who administer pre-hospital emergency medical care to patients with injuries or medical illnesses and transport them to hospitals or other medical facilities for further medical care. They are employed by private ambulance services, hospitals, fire departments, government departments and agencies, manufacturing firms, mining companies and other private sector establishments. Paramedics who are supervisors are included in this unit group.

Description of Main Duties

Workers in this unit group perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Assess extent of injuries or medical illnesses of trauma victims, patients with respiratory disease and stress, overdose and poisoning victims, industrial accident victims and other ill or injured individuals to determine emergency medical treatment
  • Administer pre-hospital emergency care to patients such as oxygen therapy, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), spinal immobilization, bandaging and splinting
  • Establish and maintain intravenous treatment (IV), apply adjunctive equipment for ventilation and circulation complications, administer medications and provide other advanced emergency treatment to patients
  • Transport patients by air, land or water to hospital or other medical facility for further medical care
  • Collaborate with ambulance dispatch centres, hospital staff, police, firefighters and family members to ensure relevant information is collected and proper treatment is administered
  • Document and record nature of injuries and illnesses and treatment provided
  • Assist hospital personnel with provision of medical treatment, if necessary
  • Maintain ambulances and emergency care equipment and supplies
  • May train and supervise other workers in this unit group
  • May assist with triage of emergency patients.

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Ambulance – attendant, driver, services supervisor, etc
  • Emergency Medical Attendant (EMA)
  • Emergency Medical Technician (EMT)
  • Paramedic

University professors and lecturers teach courses to undergraduate and graduate students and conduct research at universities. University professors who are heads of departments are included in this unit group.

Description of Main Duties

University professors and lecturers perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Teach one or more university subjects to undergraduate and graduate students
  • Prepare and deliver lectures to students and conduct laboratory sessions or discussion groups
  • Prepare, administer and grade examinations, laboratory assignments and reports
  • Advise students on course and academic matters and career decisions
  • Direct research programs of graduate students and advise on research matters
  • Conduct research in field of specialization and publish findings in scholarly journals or books
  • May serve on faculty committees dealing with such matters as curriculum planning and degree requirements, and perform a variety of administrative duties
  • May represent their universities as speakers and guest lecturers
  • May provide professional consultative services to government, industry and private individuals.

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Professor
  • Department Head
  • Assistant Professor
  • Department Chairperson
  • Visiting Scholar

Psychologists assess and diagnose behavioural, emotional and cognitive disorders, counsel clients, provide therapy, conduct research and apply theory relating to behaviour and mental processes. Psychologists help clients work toward the maintenance and enhancement of psychological, physical, intellectual, emotional, social and interpersonal functioning. Psychologists work in private practice or in clinics, correctional facilities, hospitals, mental health facilities, rehabilitation centres, community service organizations, businesses, schools and universities, and in government and private research agencies.

Description of Main Duties

Psychologists perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Examine and assess behaviour, diagnose behavioural, emotional and cognitive disorders, counsel clients and provide therapy
  • Help clients manage physical illness and disorders
  • Counsel individuals and groups to achieve more effective personal, social and vocational development and adjustment, and offer mediation services
  • Use standard psychological tests for assessment
  • Plan intervention programs and conduct program evaluation
  • Apply psychological theory and principles regarding behaviour and mental processes such as learning, language development, memory and perception to develop treatment programs
  • Formulate hypotheses and experimental designs, review literature, conduct studies and publish research papers, educational texts and articles
  • Deliver presentations at conferences, workshops or symposia
  • Provide consultation services to government and other organizations.

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Psychologist – clinical, cognitive, behavioural, developmental, experimental, research, etc
  • Behaviourist
  • Neuropsychologist
  • Psychotherapist

Early childhood educators plan, organize and implement programs for children between the ages of infancy and 12 years. Early childhood educator assistants provide care for infants and preschool- to school-age children under the guidance of early childhood educators. Early childhood educators and assistants lead children in activities to stimulate and develop their intellectual, physical and emotional growth and ensure their security and well-being. They are employed in child-care centres, daycare centres, kindergartens, agencies for exceptional children and other settings where early childhood education services are provided. Supervisors of early childhood educators and assistants are included in this unit group.

Description of Main Duties

Early childhood educators perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Develop and implement child-care programs that support and promote the physical, cognitive, emotional and social development of children
  • Lead activities by telling or reading stories, teaching songs, taking children to local points of interest and providing opportunities to express creativity through the media of art, dramatic play, music and physical activity
  • Plan and maintain an environment that protects the health, security and well-being of children
  • Assess the abilities, interests and needs of children and discuss progress or problems with parents and other staff members
  • Observe children for signs of potential learning or behavioural problems and prepare reports for parents, guardians or supervisor
  • Guide and assist children in the development of proper eating, dressing and toilet habits
  • Establish and maintain collaborative relationships with co-workers and community service providers working with children
  • May plan and organize activities for school-age children in child-care programs before and after regular school hours
  • May supervise and co-ordinate activities of other early childhood educators and early childhood educator assistants.

Early childhood educator assistants perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Support early childhood educators in carrying out programs that promote the physical, cognitive, emotional and social development of children
  • Engage children in activities by telling stories, teaching songs and preparing crafts
  • Prepare snacks and arrange rooms or furniture for lunch and rest periods
  • Assist with proper eating, dressing and toilet habits
  • Submit written observations on children to early childhood educators or supervisors
  • Maintain daycare equipment and assist in housekeeping and cooking duties
  • Attend staff meetings to discuss progress and problems of children
  • May assist early childhood educators or supervisors in keeping records.

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Early Childhood Educator
  • Early Childhood Educator Assistant
  • Preschool – helper, supervisor, teacher
  • Daycare teacher
Baby-Care – worker, worker assistant, coordinator

Translators translate written material from one language to another. Interpreters translate oral communication from one language to another during speeches, meetings, conferences, debates and conversation, or in court or before administrative tribunals. Terminologists conduct research to itemize terms connected with a certain field, define them and find equivalents in another language. Sign language interpreters use sign language to translate spoken language and vice versa during meetings, conversations, television programs or in other instances. Translators, terminologists and interpreters are employed by government, private translation and interpretation agencies, in-house translation services, large private corporations, international organizations and the media, or they may be self-employed. Sign language interpreters work in schools and courts, and for social service agencies, interpretation services, government services and television stations, or they may be self-employed.

Description of Main Duties

Translators and translator-revisers perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Translate a variety of written material such as correspondence, reports, legal documents, technical specifications and textbooks from one language to another, maintaining the content, context and style of the original material to the greatest extent possible
  • Localize software and accompanying technical documents to adapt them to another language and culture
  • Revise and correct translated material
  • May train and supervise other translators.

Terminologists perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Identify the terminology used in a field of activity
  • Conduct terminological research on a given subject or in response to inquiries for the preparation of glossaries, terminology banks, technological files, dictionaries, lexicons and resource centres, and add to terminological databases
  • Manage, update and circulate linguistic information collected from terminological databases
  • Provide consultative services to translators, interpreters and technical writers preparing legal, scientific or other documents that require specialized terminologies.

Interpreters perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Interpret oral communication from one language to another aloud or using electronic equipment, either simultaneously (as the speaker speaks), consecutively (after the speaker speaks) or whispered (speaking in a low whisper to one or two persons as the speaker is talking)
  • Provide interpretation services in court or before administrative tribunals
  • May interpret language for individuals and small groups travelling in Canada and abroad
  • May interpret for persons speaking an Aboriginal or foreign language in a variety of circumstances
  • May train other interpreters.

Sign language interpreters perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Translate sign language to a spoken language and vice versa either simultaneously or consecutively.

Sample Occupation Titles

  • Interpreter – sign language, court, elbow, escort, conference, community, etc
  • Translator – legal, literary, adaptor foreign news, etc
  • Certified Terminologist

 

 

 

 

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