Apply for Canadian Citizenship: Get a Free Legal Consultation

Last updated: 7 November 2023


There are many benefits to becoming a Canadian citizen including the right to settle permanently in one of the world's most prosperous countries, participate in the country's democracy, and possess one of the world's strongest passports.

Canada looks to welcome more than 430,000 new permanent residents each year. Most of these newcomers will become proud Canadian citizens. When that process is complete, they take loyalty oaths pledging their commitment to the responsibilities and privileges of Canadian citizenship.

This CanadaVisa page is meant to walk you through the Canadian citizenship process. 

Are you looking to apply for Canadian citizenship? Contact Cohen Immigration Law for assistance!

Canadian Citizenship Eligibility

A Canadian immigrant may apply for Canadian Citizenship after spending at least three years in Canada as a permanent resident. Do you meet the requirements for Canadian citizenship?

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Applying for Canadian Citizenship

You will need to satisfy several requirements to submit a Canadian citizenship application, and may then need to take a Canadian citizenship test. Learn more about the process.

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Canadian Citizenship Ceremony

Once you are approved as a Canadian citizen, you can attend a Citizenship Ceremony to take Canada's Oath of Citizenship. What's the Citizenship Ceremony like?

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Rights and Responsibilities of Canadian Citizens

Canadian permanent residents enjoy many, but not all, of the rights of Canadian citizens. Learn the additional rights that you will have as a Canadian citizen.

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Proof of Canadian Citizenship

If one of your parents is a Canadian citizen or if you are a Canadian with children born abroad, you may have the option of obtaining Canadian citizenship for yourself or your children.

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Dual Citizenship

Canada recognizes dual citizenship. You are not required by Canada to give up your previous citizenship once you become a Canadian citizen. How does this work?

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Frequently Asked Questions

Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) allows a permanent resident to apply for Canadian citizenship after he or she has been a physical resident of Canada for three years (1,095 days) out of the five years immediately preceding the application for citizenship. Where exceptional circumstances exist, however, someone may be allowed to apply even if he or she has not been physically resident in Canada for the required 1,095 days. The requirement to be physically present in Canada for 1,095 days does not apply to children under the age of 18.

No, there is no obligation to apply for Canadian citizenship at any time.

Unlike Canadian permanent residents, Canadian citizens have no residency obligations. Canadian citizens cannot lose their status unless it was obtained through material misrepresentation.

Canadian citizens also receive Canadian passports and are entitled to vote in federal, provincial, and municipal elections.

Canadian law dictates that applicants must be physically present in Canada as a permanent resident for 1,095 days within the five (5) years immediately before applying for citizenship.

Only the five years preceding the date of the application are taken into account. Within that five-year period:

  • Every day spent in Canada as a permanent resident counts as a full day.
  • Every day spent in Canada before becoming a permanent resident as a temporary resident or protected person counts as a half-day towards meeting the physical presence requirement for citizenship, up to a maximum credit of 365 days.
  • If the applicant became a permanent resident less than five years ago, the calculation period starts on the date that he or she became a permanent resident.
  • Time spent serving a sentence in Canada does not count towards the physical presence requirement (i.e. time spent in a prison, penitentiary, jail, reformatory, probation and/or on parole cannot be counted as physical presence).

Unless there are exceptional circumstances, time spent outside of Canada will not be counted towards the calculation of the 1,095 days required to qualify for Canadian citizenship.

Since 1977, Canada has permitted its citizens to hold dual or multi citizenship. As a result, Canadian citizens will not lose their Canadian citizenship if they retain their former nationality or become citizens of another country. Many other countries, including the United States, also recognize dual citizenship.

It is advised that a permanent resident intending to become a Canadian citizen verifies whether the country of his or her current nationality permits dual citizenship.

Not in all cases. As a general rule, only citizens residing in Canada are required to pay Canadian income tax on worldwide income. It is always best to consult with a specialist in Canadian taxation for specific advice regarding any and all Canadian taxation matters

Anyone born in Canada is most likely a Canadian citizen. Anyone unsure of his or her Canadian citizenship can contact IRCC and request a search for citizenship records, and obtain new citizenship documents.

Depending on when and for what reason citizenship was revoked, it may be possible to re-apply for Canadian citizenship. For complicated citizenship problems like these, it is best to have a consultation.

Yes. Children born in Canada are Canadian citizens regardless of the status of their parents (i.e. a parent does not have to be a Canadian citizen or permanent resident in order for his or her Canadian-born child to be a citizen).

A child must be a permanent resident of Canada to become a citizen. The physical presence requirement of 1,095 days does not apply to children under the age of 18. In order to apply for citizenship for a child under the age of 18, one of the child's parents must already be a Canadian citizen, or must apply for citizenship at the same time. This applies to adoptive children as well.

Contact Cohen Immigration Law for Canadian Citizenship Assistance

Do you need Canadian citizenship assistance? Cohen Immigration Law is here to help. We can assess your eligibility and submit your Canadian citizenship application to the Canadian government. Cohen Immigration Law offers over 45 years of expertise helping clients become Canadians.

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