There is nothing stopping a refugee from applying to immigrate to Canada. However you will have to find an immigration category that you qualify for. Information about all of the programs can be found here:http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/immigrate/index.asp
Unfortunately you do not qualify for the Federal Skilled Worker program because your job is not on the desired occupations list. If you still want to apply to immigrate through this program, you will first have to secure a job offer in Canada (which is very difficult for teachers to do).
I would recommend that you take a look at the provincial programs to see if you might qualify for one of those (Quebec select and provincial nominee programs). Since you are a teacher, I think you will find that you cannot immigrate without having a job offer in Canada first.
Do you have any close family in Canada?